Open Journal Systems

A review of disasters in Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh region in India

Sangram Kishor Patel, Ankit Nanda, Govind Singh, Sunita Patel

Abstract

India has always been a disaster-prone country, with multiple states afflicted by different types of disasters. The impact of these disasters is exacerbated when an area is prone to multiple types of disasters. This study attempts to understand the impact of natural and man-made disasters on the people of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh region in India as well as it also examines the resilience mechanisms adopted by the people, and identifies measures taken by the government in response to these disasters. To understand these disasters’ dynamics, we conducted both offline and online desk reviews for this study. The review suggests that J&K and Ladakh region is afflicted not only by multiple natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides but also by the terrorism and violence, which has caused unparalleled death and destruction. These natural and man-made disasters have adversely affected most aspects of life and development in the region. To mitigate the risks, effective disaster risk reduction and management systems, early warning systems and infrastructure need to be strengthened. In addition, community engagement needs to be enhanced with the goal of addressing the grievances of the population and engaging them in the design and implementation of sustainable development programs.


Keywords

Natural disaster; Man-made disaster; Conflict; Terrorism; Violence; Jammu and Kashmir; Ladakh; India

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ali I, Mir AA, Jabeen R, Ahmad M, Fazili A, Kaul RU, Kumar R and Keshkar S. (2010). Morbidity Pattern and Impact of Rehabilitative Services in Earthquake Victims of Kashmir, India. International Journal of Health Sciences, 4(1):59-67.

Amin S and Khan AW. (2009). Life in Conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir. International Journal of Health Sciences, 3(2):213-23.

Anees SU and Bhat MS. (2016). History of Natural Disasters in Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Kashmir with Special Reference to Earthquakes. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(9):17163-71.

Anjum A and Varma S. (2010). Curfewed in Kashmir: Voices from the Valley. Economic and Political Weekly, 45(35):10-14.

Barbhuiya MR and Chatterjee D. (2020). Vulnerability and Resilience of the Tourism Sector in India: Effects of Natural Disasters and Internal Conflict. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33:100616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100616.

Barnard PL, Owen LA, Sharma MC and Finkel RC. (2001). Natural and Human-induced Landsliding in the Garhwal Himalaya of Northern India. Geomorphology, 40(1-2):21-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-555x(01)00035-6.

Behera NC. (2016). The Kashmir Conflict: Multiple Fault Lines. Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 3(1):41-63. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347797015626045.

Bose S. (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bukhari S. (2014). Kashmir: A Flood and Leaving People to Their Own Devices. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(42):15-7.

Catapano F, Malafronte R, Lepre F, Cozzolino P, Arnone R, Lorenzo E, Tartaglia G, Starace F, Magliano L and Maj M. (2001). Psychological Consequences of the 1998 Landslide in Sarno, Italy: A Community Study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104(6):438-42. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.00512.x.

Census of India. (2011). Census Info India 2011: Jammu and Kashmir Profile. Available from: https://www.censusindia.gov. in/2011census/censusinfodashboard/stock/profiles/en/IND001_Jammu%20&%20Kashmir.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 14].

Chadda RK, Malhotra A, Kaw N, Singh J and Sethi H. (2007). Mental Health Problems Following the 2005 Earthquake in Kashmir: Findings of Community-run Clinics. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 22(6):541-5. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1049023x00005409.

CRED and UNISDR. (2015). The Human Cost of Weather-related Disasters, 1995-2015. Geneva, Switzerland: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Available from: http://www.unisdr.org/files/46796_ cop21weatherdisastersreport2015.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1163/1570-6664_iyb_sim_org_55577. [Last accessed on 2019 Dec 18].

Dar KA, Iqbal N, Prakash A and Paul MA. (2018). PTSD and Depression in Adult Survivors of Food Fury in Kashmir: The Payoffs of Social Support. Psychiatry Research, 261:449-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.01.023.

De Jong K, Ford N, Van de Kam S, Lokuge K, Fromm S, Van Galen R, Reilley B and Kleber R. (2008). Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: Exposure to Violence. Conflict and Health, 2(10):1-4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-2-11.

EFSAS. (2017). Impact of Terrorism on Jammu and Kashmir’s Ecology and Economy. European Foundation for South Asian Studies. Available from: https://www.efsas.org/ImpactofterrorismonJammu&Kashmir’secologyandeconomy.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 16].

Fatima Z and Maqbool S. (2017). Prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Flood Affected Individuals of Kashmir after Six Months of Flood. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(6):184-8.

Ganju A and Dimri AP. (2004). Prevention and Mitigation of Avalanche Disasters in Western Himalayan Region. Natural Hazards, 31(2):357-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nhaz.0000023357.37850.aa.

GOI. (2008). Round Table Conference on Jammu and Kashmir-implementation of the Recommendations of the Working Group on Confidence Building Measures in the State. India: Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Available from: https://www.mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/PensiWiCivilOrphans_06062017.pdf. https:// doi.org/10.21474/ijar01/9905. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 09].

GOI. (2011). Himayat. India: Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Available from: http://www.himayat.org/AboutUs. aspx. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 09].

GOI. (2015). Enhancement of Cash Relief to the Kashmiri Migrants. India: Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Available from: https://www.mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/ReliefRehabKashmiriMigrants_06062017. pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 14].

GOI. (2017). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16. India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Available from: http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-4Reports/India.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1881-4. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 26].

GOJ&K. (2013). Agriculture Policy for Jammu and Kashmir State-2013. Kashmir: Agriculture Production Department, Government of Jammu and Kashmir. Available from: http://www.jkapd.nic.in/PDF/AgriulturePolicy.pdf. https://doi.org/10.21474/ijar01/9905. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 03].

GOJ&K. (2015). Schemes of the Rehabilitation Council. Kashmir: Social Welfare Department, Government of Jammu and Kashmir. Available from: http://www.jksrc.nic.in/scheme.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 13].

Gupta AK. (2014). Loss of Life in Kashmir: A Tale of Man Made Disaster. New Delhi: The Water Digest Report. p8-25.

Gupta P, Khanna A and Majumdar S. (2012). Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37(3):185-90. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.99928.

Hamilton JP and Halvorson SJ. (2007). The 2005 Kashmir Earthquake: A Perspective on Women’s Experiences. Mountain Research and Development, 27(4):296-301. https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.0945.

Hassan R. (2014). Disasters in Kashmir: Impact and Response. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(7):32-42.

Housen T, Lenglet A, Shah S, Sha H, Ara S, Pintaldi G and Richardson A. (2019). Trauma in the Kashmir Valley and the Mediating Effect of Stressors of Daily Life on Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety. Conflict and Health, 13:58. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-019-0245-6.

IMD. (2014). Climate of Jammu and Kashmir. Indian: Indian Meteorological Department. Available from: http://www.diragrijmu.nic. in/CSS%20GUIDELINES/FINAL_CLIMATE%20OF%20JAMMU%20AND%20KASHMIR_e%20book.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Nov 15].

Indian Express. (2018). Landslide Blocks Jammu-Srinagar Highway. Noida: Indian Express. Available from: http://www.indianexpress. com/article/india/landslide-blocks-jammu-srinagar-highway-5084678. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 16].

Institute for Economics and Peace. (2017). Global Terrorism Index: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism. Available from: http://www.visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2017.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1108/s1572- 8323(2014)0000022010. [Last accessed on 2019 Dec 18].

Irshad IA and Bhat AA. (2015). The Vitality and Role of Self-help Groups (SHGs) in Women Upliftment: Special Reference to Kashmir. International Journal of Research Granthaalayah, 3(8):105-110.

Jameel Y. (2017). Jammu and Kashmir Government Announces Ex-gratia for Victims of Amarnath Terror Attack. Deccan Chronicle. Available from: https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/110717/jk-govt-anounces-compensation-for-victims-of-terror-attack.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 18].

Kelman I, Field J, Suri K and Bhat G. (2018). Disaster Diplomacy in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 31:1132-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.02.007.

Khan AH. (2017). Changed Security Situation in Jammu and Kashmir: The road Ahead. New Delhi: Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (MP-IDSA). Available from: https://www.idsa.in/system/files/monograph/monograph61.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 24].

Khan JI, Ayoub S and Tahir N. (2013). Response of Households to ‘Armed’ Conflict-a Case Study of the Srinagar District. European Academic Research, 1(1):15-29.

Kumar KV, Martha TR and Roy PS. (2006). Mapping Damage in the Jammu and Kashmir Caused by 8 October 2005 Mw 7.3 Earthquake from the Cartosat-1 and Resourcesat-1 Imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(20):4449-59. https:// doi.org/10.1080/01431160600702376.

Mahapatra DA and Shekhawat S. (2008). The Peace Process and Prospects for Economic Reconstruction in Kashmir. Peace and Conflict Review, 3(1):1-17.

Nel P and Righarts M. (2008). Natural Disasters and the Risk of Violent Civil Conflict. International Studies Quarterly, 52(1):159-85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2478.2007.00495.x.

New Indian Express. (2018). Jammu and Kashmir Government Announces Compensation to Kin of Avalanche Victims. Tamil Nadu: New Indian Express. Available from: http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2018/jan/06/jammu-and-kashmir-government-announces-compensation-to-kin-of-avalanche-victims-1746354.html. https://doi.org/10.21088/ijem.2395.311x.3117.29. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 16].

Qayoom F. (2014). Women and Armed Conflict: Widows in Kashmir. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 6(5):161-8. https://doi.org/10.5897/ijsa2013.0512.

Qutab S. (2012). Women Victims of Armed Conflict: Half-widows in Jammu and Kashmir. Sociological Bulletin, 61(2):255-78. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0038022920120203.

Rafiq M and Mishra AK. (2018). A Study of Heavy Snowfall in Kashmir, India in January 2017. Weather, 73(1):15-7. https://doi. org/10.1002/wea.3065.

SATP. (2020). Fatalities in Terrorist Violence 1988-2020. India: South Asia Terrorism Portal. Available from: https://www.satp.org/ datasheet-terrorist-attack/fatalities/india-jammukashmir. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 30].

SDMP. (2017). State Disaster Management Plan. India: Department of Disaster Management, Relief, Rehabilitation and Construction, Government of Jammu and Kashmir.

SDRF. (2015). Items and Norms of Assistance from the State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) and the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) for the Period 2015-2020. India: Government of India. Available from: http://www.msdma.gov.in/SDRF/SDRF-NORMS-2015-2020.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1111/mmi.13254. [Last accessed on 2019 Dec 19].

Shah AA, Khwaja S, Shah BA, Reduan Q and Jawi Z. (2018). Living with Earthquake and Flood Hazards in Jammu and Kashmir, NW Himalaya. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6:179. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2018.00179.

Shaluf IM. (2007). Disaster Types. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 16(5):704-17. https://doi. org/10.1108/09653560710837019.

Sharma R, Sharma VK and Waris VS. (2012). Impact of Peace and Disturbances on Tourism and Horticulture in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6):1-7.

Shekhawat S. (2009). Conflict Induced Displacement: The Pandits of Kashmir. Conflict Trends, 4:31-7.

Singh Y, Bhat GM, Sharma V, Pandita SK and Thakur KK. (2012). Reservoir Induced Landslide at Assar, Jammu and Kashmir: A Case Study. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 80(3):435-9.

Singh G, Hasan FU and Kasi S. (2016). Medical Relief Camps in Flood Disaster-affected Area: Experience in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Scientific Study, 4(5):60-4. https://doi.org/10.17354/ijss/2016/430.

Sphere India. (2014). Joint Rapid Needs Assessment Report: Jammu and Kashmir Floods 2014. Available from: https://www.reliefweb. int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/23.09.2014%20J%26K%20Floods%20Assessment%20Report%20Version%20II.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Dec 19].

Tabish SA and Nabil S. (2015). Epic Tragedy: Jammu and Kashmir Floods: A Clarion Call. Emergency Medicine: Open Access, 5(2):1-8. https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7548.1000233.

UNISDR and CRED. (2016). Poverty and Death: Disaster Mortality, 1996-2015. Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. Available from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/50589_creddisastermortalityallfinalpdf.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 14].

UNISDR. (2009). 2009 UNISDR Terminology for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Available from: https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/7817. https://doi.org/10.1163/1570- 6664_iyb_sim_org_55577. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 14].

Venugopal R and Yasir S. (2017). The Politics of Natural Disasters in Protracted Conflict: The 2014 Flood in Kashmir. Oxford Development Studies, 45(4):424-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2016.1276160.

Verma AK and Mushtaq R. (2013). Landslides: An Environmental Hazard in the Pir-Panjal Himalayan Range in Poonch District of J&K State, India. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 4(1):143-8.

Vithalani KR and Bansal N. (2017). Causes and Effect of Kashmir Flood. International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, 3(6):863-9.

Wani SM, Suhaff AA, Khan AW and Teli BA. (2020). Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in People Affected by Flood in Kashmir. International Journal of Health Science Research, 10(6):24-9.

Yousuf M, Bukhari SK, Bhat GR and Ali A. (2020). Understanding and Managing Earthquake Hazard visa viz. Disaster Mitigation Strategies in Kashmir Valley, NW Himalaya. Progress in Disaster Science, 5:100064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2020.100064.

Zahir-ud-Din. (2005). South Asia Earthquake: Civilian and Government Responses. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(44-45):4666-7. https://doi.org/10.2307/4417345.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijps.v6i1.1180
(248 Abstract Views, 192 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Patel, et al.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.