Gender differences in hypertension-free life expectancy in Bangladesh

Md. Ismail Tareque, Yasuhiko Saito

Abstract

In Bangladesh, although some research on health expectancy exists, life expectancies with and without hypertension (HTN) have never been computed. We examined gender differences in the prevalence of hypertension and Hypertension-Free Life Expectancy (HFLE) in Bangladesh. We used data from a nationally representative survey of 7,864 people aged 35 and older. We classified an individual as having HTN if s/he had blood pressure levels ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure or ≥90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure, or s/he was at the time on antihypertensive medication. The Sullivan method was employed to compute HFLE. We found that women have HTN in significantly higher percentages (32% of women vs. 19% of men), and the prevalence of HTN increases as age increases for both men and women. Among individuals with HTN, individuals unaware of HTN make up the largest group, followed by those with uncontrolled HTN, controlled HTN, and those who are aware of HTN but not in treatment. Compared with men, women could expect shorter HFLE at all ages, in terms of both number and proportion of years. To increase HFLE as well as quality of life and to prevent and control HTN in general and unawareness of HTN and uncontrolled HTN in particular, special care and attention should be given to women and older adults. The findings shed important light on the role of HTN in lowering the quality of life in Bangladesh.

 


Keywords

hypertension; gender disparities; health expectancy; hypertension-free life expectancy; Bangladesh

Full Text:

PDF

References

American Heart Association (2017). High blood pressure and women.

http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/High-Blood-Pressure-and-Women_UCM_301867_Article.jsp.

August P and Oparil S (1999). Hypertension in women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84(6): 1862–1866.

https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.84.6.5724.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) (2011). Report on Sample Vital Registration System- 2010. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning.

Barford A, Dorling D, Smith GD, et al. (2006). Life expectancy: Women now on top everywhere. British Medical Journal, 332(7545): 808.

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.332.7545.808.

Camargos MCS, Machado CJ and Do Nascimento Rodrigues R (2007). Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2000: Gender and educational differences. Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(3): 455–463.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S002193200600142 8.

Chiang BN, Perlman LV and Epstein FH (1969). Overweight and hypertension: A review. Circulation, 39(3): 403–421.

https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.39.3.403.

Crimmins EM, Hayward MD and Saito Y (1994). Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population. Demography, 31(1): 159–175.

https://doi.org/10.2307/2061913.

Crimmins EM and Saito Y (2001). Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: Gender, racial, and educational differences. Social Science & Medicine, 52(11): 1629–1641.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00273-2.

Doblhammer G and Hoffmann R (2010). Gender differences in trajectories of health limitations and subsequent mortality. A study based on the German socioeconomic panel 1995–2001 with a mortality follow-up 2002–2005. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B(4): 482–491.

https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp051.

Franco OH, Peeters A, Bonneux L, et al. (2005). Blood pressure in adulthood and life expectancy with cardiovascular disease in men and women: Life course analysis. Hypertension, 46(2): 280–286.

https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000173433.67426.9b.

Guedes DT, Vafaei A, Alvarado BE, et al. (2016). “Experiences of violence across life course and its effects on mobility among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study. BMJ Open, 6(10).

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012339.

Islam MS, Tareque MI, Mondal MNI, et al. (2017). Urban-rural differences in disability-free life expectancy in Bangladesh using the 2010 HIES data. PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0179987.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179987.

Islam TM, Tareque MI, Tiedt AD, et al. (2014). The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh. Global Health Action, 7(1): 23591.

https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.23591.

Jagger C, Cox B, Roy SL, et al. (2006). Health expectancy calculation by the Sullivan method: A practical guide. 3rd ed. EHEMU Technical Report. France: European Health Expectancy Monitoring Unit.

Jagger C, Gillies C, Moscone F, et al. (2008). Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: A cross-national meta-regression analysis. The Lancet, 372(9656): 2124–2131.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61594-9.

Jitapunkul S, Kunanusont C, Phoolcharoen W, et al. (2003). Disability‐free life expectancy of elderly people in a population undergoing demographic and epidemiologic transition. Age and Ageing, 32(4): 401–405.

https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/32.4.401.

Knodel J and Ofstedal MB (2003). Gender and aging in the developing world: Where are the men? Population and Development Review, 29(4): 677–698.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00677.x.

Liu J, Chen G, Song X, et al. (2009). Trends in disability-free life expectancy among Chinese older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(2): 266–285.

https://doi.org/10.1177/089826430832897 8.

Mathers CD and Robine JM (1997). How good is Sullivan’s method for monitoring changes in population health expectancies? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 51(1): 80–86.

https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.51.1.80.

Mishra V, Roy TK and Retherford RD (2004). Sex differentials in childhood feeding, health care, and nutritional status in India. Population and Development Review, 30(2): 269–295.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.013_1.x.

National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates and ICF International (2013). Bangladesh: Demographic and health survey 2011. Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates and ICF International.

https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/fr265/fr265.pdf.

Oksuzyan A, Juel K, Vaupel JW, et al. (2008). Men: Good health and high mortality. Sex differences in health and aging. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 20(2): 91–102.

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324754.

Onadja Y, Atchessi N, Soura BA, et al. (2013). Gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability in old age: A cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 57(3): 311–318.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2013.06.007.

Reyes-Beaman S, Jagger C, Garcia-Peña C, et al. (2005). Active life expectancy of older people in Mexico”. Disability & Rehabilitation, 27(5): 213–219.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280400006424.

Riley JC (2005). Estimates of regional and global life expectancy, 1800–2001. Population and Development Review, 31(3): 537–543.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00083.x.

Robine J-M, Jagger C, Mathers CD, et al. (2003). Determining Health Expectancies. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Saito Y, Qiao X and Jitapunkul S (2003). Health expectancy in Asian countries. In: Robine J-M, Jagger C, Mathers CD, et al. (eds), Determining Health Expectancies (p. 289–317). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Saito Y, Robine J-M and Crimmins EM (2014). The methods and materials of health expectancy. Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 30(3): 209–223.

https://doi.org/10.3233/SJI-140840.

Sanders BS (1964). Measuring community health levels. American Journal of Public Health, 54(7): 1063–1070.

https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.54.7.1063.

Saquib N, Saquib J, Ahmed T, et al. (2012). Cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 1995 and 2010. BMC Public Health, 12: 434.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-434.

Sesso HD, Chen RS, L’Italien GJ, et al. (2003). Blood pressure lowering and life expectancy based on a Markov model of cardiovascular events. Hypertension, 42(5): 885–890.

https://doi.org/ 10.1161/01.HYP.0000097602.67134.4D.

Stiefel MC, Perla RJ and Zell BL (2010). A healthy bottom line: Healthy life expectancy as an outcome measure for health improvement efforts. Milbank Quarterly, 88(1): 30–53.

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2010.00588.x.

Sullivan DF (1971). A single index of mortality and morbidity. HSMHA Health Reports, 86(4): 347–354.

https://doi.org/10.2307/4594169.

Tareque MI, Begum S and Saito Y (2013). Gender differences in disability-free life expectancy at old ages in Bangladesh. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(8): 1299–1312.

https://doi.org/10.1177/08 98264313501388.

_____ (2014). Inequality in disability in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 9(7): e103681.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103681.

Tareque MI, Islam TM, Kawahara K, et al. (2015). Healthy life expectancy and the correlates of self-rated health in an ageing population in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Ageing and Society, 35(5): 1075–1094.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X14000130.

Tareque MI, Koshio A, Tiedt AD, et al. (2015). Are the rates of hypertension and diabetes higher in people from lower socioeconomic status in Bangladesh? Results from a nationally representative survey. PLoS ONE, 10(5): e0127954.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127954.

Tareque MI, Saito Y and Kawahara K (2015). Healthy life expectancy and the correlates of self-rated health in Bangladesh in 1996 and 2002. BMC Public Health, 15: 312.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1640-6.

Turin TC, Murakami Y, Miura K, et al. (2012). Hypertension and life expectancy among Japanese: NIPPON DATA80. Hypertension Research, 35(9): 954–958.

https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.201 2.86.

World Health Organization (2014). Life expectancy: Life tables by country, Bangladesh.

http://apps.who.int/gho/data/?theme=main&vid=6012 0.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijps.2017.01.004.
(35 Abstract Views, 20 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Md. Ismail Tareque and Yasuhiko Saito

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.