Household structure and child education in Cambodia

Patrick Heuveline, Savet Hong

Abstract

We analyze the effects of household structure on education in Cambodia. Consistent evidence documents that residence with both biological parents benefits children’s education in Western countries. Elsewhere, the issue is gaining more attention with the growing number of “left-behind children” due to adult migration and, possibly, changes in family behavior. The extant record is both thinner and more contrasted, however. Controlling for the presence of grandparents and some household characteristics, we find children residing with both biological parents are more likely to be enrolled in school, in the appropriate grade for their age, and literate than those living with only one parent. The effect sizes appear comparable to those in most Western countries, but the effects shrink or even disappear when grandparents are present. The results for children not residing with either parent are mixed, possibly resulting from negative effects for some children and positive selection for some others. 


Keywords

education;family demography; global/international; household structure; single parents

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ayres DM (2000). Tradition, modernity, and the development of education in Cambodia. Comparative Education Review, 44(4): 440–462. http://doi.org/10.1086/447629.

Beegle K, De Weerdt J and Dercon S (2009). Orphanhood and human capital destruction: Is there persistence into adulthood? Demography, 47(1): 163–180. http://doi.org/10.1353/dem.0.0094

Bianchi SM, Robinson JP and Milkie MA (2006). Changing Rhythms of American Family Life. New York: Russell Sage.

Biblarz TJ and Gottainer G (2000). Family structure and children’s success: A comparison of widowed and divorced single-mother families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2): 533–548. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00533.x.

Birdthistle I, Floyd S, Nyagadza A, et al. (2009). Is education the link between orphanhood and HIV/HSV-2 risk among female adolescents in urban Zimbabwe? Social Science and Medicine, 68(10): 1810–1818. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.02.035

Bledsoe C (1990). The social management of fertility: Child fosterage among the Mende of Sierra Leone. In Handwerker WP (editors). Births and power: Social change and the politics of reproduction (pp. 81–101). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Brehm WC (2016). The contemporary landscape of education in Cambodia. In Brickell K and Springer S (editors). The handbook of contemporary Cambodia (pp.271–282) Abingdon, United Kingdom, and New York: Routledge.

Case A and Ardington C (2006). The impact of parental death on school outcomes: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa. Demography, 43(3): 401–420. http://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2006.0022.

Chae S (2016). Parental divorce and children’s schooling in rural Malawi. Demography, 53(6): 1743–1770. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13254-016-0521-7

Chea H and Sok H (2001). The Cambodian garment industry. Cambodia Development Review, 5(3): 1–8.

Coleman J (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 95: S95–S120. http://doi.org/10.1086/228943.

Collinson MA, Tollman SM, Kahn K, et al. (2006). Highly prevalent circular migration: Households, mobility and economic status in rural South Africa. In Tienda M, Findley SE, Tollman SM, et al. (editors.). Africa on the move: African migration and urbanisation in comparative perspective (pp. 194–216). Johannesburg, South Africa: University of the Witwatersrand Press.

Cooke LP and Baxter J (2010). “Families” in international context: Comparing institutional effects across Western societies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3): 516–536. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00716.x.

Das D (2016). “Enrollment, educational expenditures and work among one-parent children in India.” Marriage and Family Review, 52(1–2): 196–215. http://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2015.1073652.

DeLeire T and Kalil A (2002). Good things come in 3’s: Multigenerational coresidence and adolescent adjustment. Demography, 39(2): 393–413. http://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2002.0016.

Demont F and Heuveline P (2008). Diversity and change in Cambodian households, 1998-2006. Journal of Population Research, 25(3): 287–313. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF03033892.

Derks A (2008). Khmer women on the move: Exploring work and life in urban Cambodia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

DeRose L, Corcuera Garcia P, Salazar A, et al. (2014). Household structure and school attendance in 67 Countries: Why children with absent fathers do better in some places. Paper presented at the 2014 meetings of the Population Association of America, May 1–3, Boston, MA.

Ear S (2011). Growth in the Rice and Garment Sectors. In Hughes C and Un K (editors) Cambodia’s economic transformation (pp.70–93). Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Ebihara M (1968). Svay : A Khmer village in Cambodia, doctoral thesis. New York: Columbia University Press.

Esara P (2012). Moral scrutiny, marriage inequality: Cohabitation in Bangkok, Thailand. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 13(3): 211–227. http://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2012.680486.

Esteve A, Lesthaeghe R and López-Gay A (2012). The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007. Population and Development Review, 38(1): 55–81. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00472.x.

Evans D K and Miguel E (2007). Orphans and schooling in Africa: A longitudinal analysis. Demography, 44(1): 35–57. http://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2007.0002.

Filmer D and Schady N (2009). School enrollment, selection and test scores. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Flores G, Por I, Chean RM, et al. (2013). Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: The impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia. Journal of Health Economics, 32(6): 1180–1193. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2013.09.012.

Garib G, Martin Garcia T and Dronkers J (2007). Are the effects of different family forms on children’s educational performance related to the demographic characteristics and family policies of modern societies? In Moerbeek H, Niehof A and van Ophem J (editors). Changing families and their lifestyles (pp.27–50). Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic.

Gertler P, Levine DI and Ames M (2004). Schooling and parental death. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1): 211–225. http://doi.org/10.1162/003465304323023769.

Hampden-Thompson G (2013). Family policy, family structure, and children’s educational achievement. Social Science Research, 42(3): 804–817. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.01.005.

Heuveline P and Hong S (2016). One-parent families in contemporary Cambodia. Marriage & Family Review, 52(1–2): 216–242. http://doi:10.1080/01494929.2015.1076553.

Heuveline P and Poch B (2006). Do marriages forget their past? Marital stability in post-Khmer-Rouge Cambodia. Demography, 43(1): 99–125. http://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2006.0005.

Heuveline P, Yang H and Timberlake JM (2010). It takes a village (or perhaps a Nation): Family structures, State policies and children’s educational achievement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(5): 1362–1376. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00088.x.

Hill M, Yeung W and Duncan G (2001). Childhood family structure and young adult behaviors. Journal of Population Economics, 14: 271–279. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/s001480000.

Hoefinger H (2013). Sex, love and money in Cambodia: Professional girlfriends and transactional relationships. Abington, United Kingdom and New York: Routledge.

Huisman J and Smits J (2009). Effects of household-and district-level factors on primary school enrollment in 30 developing countries. World Development, 37(1): 179–193. http://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015609666.

International Labour Office (2012). Cambodia: Social protection expenditure and performance review. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. 2017. The Mekong Island Population Laboratory (MIPopLab), A Demographic Surveillance System in Rural Cambodia (2000-06). ICPSR36601-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: ICPSR, 2017-04-13. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36601.v1

Isiugo-Abanihe UC (1985). Child fosterage in West Africa. Population and Development Review, 11(1): 53–74.

Kandel W and Kao G (2001). The impact of temporary labor migration on Mexican students’ educational aspirations and performance. International Migration Review, 35(4): 1205–1231. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2001.tb00058.x.

Kim S (2011). Reciprocity: Informal patterns of social interaction in a Cambodian Village. In J. Marston (Ed.) Anthropology and community in Cambodia: Reflections on the work of May Ebihara (pp.153–69). Victoria, Australia: Monash Asia Institute.

Kuhn R (2006). The effects of fathers’ and siblings’ migration on children's pace of schooling in rural Bangladesh. Asian Population Studies, 2(1): 69–92. http://doi.org/10.1080/17441730600700572.

Lloyd CB and Blanc AK (1996). Children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of fathers, mothers, and others. Population and Development Review, 22(2): 265–298.

Loenzien M de (2016). Lone motherhood and its educational outcomes for children in Vietnam. Marriage and Family Review, 52(1–2): 162–195. http://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2015.1136859.

Madhavan S (2004). Fosterage patterns in the age of AIDS: Continuity and change. Social Science & Medicine, 58(7): 1443–1454. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00341-1.

Mahaarcha W and Kittisuksathit S (2009). Impact of family structure, parental migration, and parental divorce on an adolescent’s educational enrollment: Evidence from a longitudinal study in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, 18(1): 1–22.

Marks GN (2006). Family size, family type and student achievement: Cross-national differences and the role of socioeconomic background and schools. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 31(1): 1–24.

McLanahan S, Tach L and Schneider D (2013). The causal effects of father absence. Annual Review of Sociology, 39: 399–427.

Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. 1997. Education statistics, 1996–1997. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: RGOC, UNESCO, and UNDP.

National Committee for Population and Development (2009). Migration and development in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: The Office of the Council of Ministers and United Nations Population Fund.

National Institute of Statistics (1999). General population census of Cambodia 1998: Final census results. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Planning.

Nguon S. 2012. Parental involvement and students’ achievement in Cambodia: Focusing on parental resourcing of public schooling. International Journal of Educational Research, 53: 213–24. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2012.03.011.

Nobles J (2011). Parenting from abroad: Migration, nonresident father involvement, and children's education in Mexico. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(4), 729-746. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00842.x.

Nyamukapa C and Gregson S (2005). Extended family’s and women’s roles in safeguarding orphans’ education in AIDS-afflicted rural Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, 60(10): 2155–2167. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.10.005

Park H (2007). Single parenthood and children’s reading performance in Asia. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(3): 863–877. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00410.x.

Parreñas RS (2005). Children of global migration: Transnational families and gendered woes. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Pong SL (1996). School participation of children from single-mother families in Malaysia. Comparative Education Review, 40(3): 231–249. http://doi.org/10.1086/447383.

Pong SL, Dronkers J and Hampden-Thompson G (2003). Family policies and children’s school achievement in single-versus two-parent families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(4): 681–699. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00681.x.

Planning MO (2015). Cambodia socio-economic survey 2014. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Planning.

Raymo JM, Hyunjoon P, Yu X, et al. (2015). Marriage and family in East Asia: Continuity and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 41: 471–492. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112428.

Safman RM (2003). Assessing the impact of orphanhood on Thai children affected by AIDS and their caregivers. AIDS Care, 16(1): 11–19. http://doi.org/10.1080/09540120310001633930.

Schiller KS, Khmelkov VT and Wang XQ (2004). Economic development and the effects of family characteristics on mathematics achievement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3): 730–742. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00730.x.

Shirahase S and Raymo JM (2014). Living arrangements and poverty among single mothers in Japan. Social Forces, 93(2): 545–569. http://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sou077.

Smith-Hefner NJ (1999). Khmer Americans: Identity and moral education in a diasporic community. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Townsend N, Madhavan S, Tollman S, et al. (2002). Children’s residence patterns and educational attainment in rural South Africa, 1997. Population Studies, 56(2) : 215–225. http://doi.org/10.1080/00324720215925.

van de Kaa DJ (1987). Europe’s second demographic transition. Population Bulletin 42(1): 1–59. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.

World Bank (2014). Where have all the poor gone? Cambodia poverty assessment 2013. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Xenos P and Kabamalan MM (2007). Emerging forms of union formation in the Philippines. Asian Population Studies, 3(3): 263–286. http://doi.org/10.1080/17441730701746417.

Yao L and Treiman DJ (2011). Migration, remittances and educational stratification among blacks in apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa. Social Forces, 89(4), 1119–1143. http://doi.org/10.1093/sf/89.4.1119.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijps.v3i2.309
(97 Abstract Views, 105 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Patrick C Heuveline, Savet Hong

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.