Open Journal Systems

Challenges to the integration of Syrian refugees

Ernesto F. L. Amaral, Mahlet A. Woldetsadik, Gabriela Armenta

Abstract

In this study, we provide an overview of the situation of Syrian refugees and other non-citizens living in host countries. We explored the cases of several countries: Turkey, which is one of the main destinations for refugees, flees the Syrian crisis; Germany and the United Kingdom, which are high-income countries where the public sentiment about refugees has changed over time; Greece and Italy, nations that share a close border with countries experiencing large refugee influxes; and Canada and Australia, which have had different approaches regarding inflows of refugees and do not share borders with countries that have significant outflows of migrants and refugees. Our review of policies suggests that the successful resettlement of Syrian refugees is dependent on political commitment that is coupled with public support and community engagement. Successful social and economic policies to address the refugee crisis demand a combined effort in terms of planning, implementing, monitoring, and assessing initiatives. Most importantly, record-keeping and sharing data with stakeholders need to be improved, which is a joint request of non-profit organizations and academic institutions.

Keywords

Refugees; Asylum; Migration; Syria; Civil war; Integration

Full Text:

PDF

References

Alboim N (2016). Lessons Learned from the Indochinese and Syrian Refugee Movements. Montreal: Policy Options. Available from: http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/may-2016/lessons-learned-from-the-indochinese-and-syrian-refugee-movements/. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Australia-Government (2001). Migration Legislation Amendment Act 1989. Canberra, Australia: Federal Register of Legislation. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2006C00043. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Australian-Government (2015). Migration Amendment (Protection and Other Measures) Act 2015. Canberra, Australia: Federal Register of Legislation. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2015A00035. [Last Accessed on Sep 28, 2018].

Australian-Government (2017). Australia’s Response to the Syrian and Iraqi Humanitarian Crisis. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of Home Affairs. Available from: https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/Trav/Refu/response-syrian-humanitarian-crisis. [Last Accessed on Oct 2, 2018].

BBC (2017). Australia Asylum: Why is it Controversial? London: BBC News. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/worldasia-28189608 [Last Accessed on Sep 28, 2018].

Blau FD and Mackie C, editors (2017). The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi.org/10.17226/23550.

Borjas GJ (2003). The labor demand curve is downward sloping: Reexamining the impact of immigration on the labor market. Quarterly

Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1335-1374. doi.org/10.1162/003355303322552810.

Calabia T (2018). Why Turkey’s Model Work Permits for Refugees Don’t Actually Work. PassBlue - Independent Coverage of the UN. Available from: http://www.passblue.com/2018/02/05/why-turkeys-model-work-permits-for-refugees-dont-actually-work. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Card D (2012). Comment: The elusive search for negative wage impacts of immigration. Journal of the European Economics Association, 10(1), 211-2015. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01057.x.

Card D, Dustmann C and Preston I (2012). Immigration, wages, and compositional amenities. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(1), 78-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01051.x.

Casciani D (2017). Brexit: What’s Happening to Migration? BBC News. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-42113427. [Last Accessed on: Sept 28, 2018].

CCR (2009). Brief History of Canada’s Responses to Refugees. Montreal: Canadian Council for Refugees (CCR). Available from: http://ccrweb.ca/en/brief-history-canadas-responses-refugees. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Dearden L (2016). London: Independent Digital News and Media. Available from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/homenews/government-plan-to-resettle-up-to-3000-refugee-children-not-good-enough-say-mps-and-charities-a6994551.html. [Last Accessed on: Sept 28, 2018].

DIMA (2006). National Framework for Settlement Planning. Canberra: Australian Government, Department of Immigration and Multicural Affairs (DIMA). Available from: http://www.library.bsl.org.au/jspui/bitstream/1/888/1/National%20framework%20for%20settlement%20planning,%20March%202006.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sept 28, 2018].

Ditchburn J (2016). Canada was Having the Wrong Debate About Refugees. Montreal: Policy Options. Available from: http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/may-2016/canada-was-having-the-wrong-debate-about-refugees/. [Last Accessed on: Oct 2, 2018].

DOMiD (2016). Migration History in Germany. Cologne: Documentation Centre and Museum of Migration in Germany (DOMiD). Available from: https://www.domid.org/en/migration-history-germany. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EMN (2012). The Organisation of Asylum and Migration Policies, Factsheet: Italy. Brussels: European Commission, European Migration Network (EMN). Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/reports/docs/emn-studies/asylum-migration/14._italy_factsheet_institutional_chart_en.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EU (2016a). EU-Turkey Statement. Brussels: Press Office, General Secretariat of the Council, European Union (EU). Available from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/03/18/eu-turkey-statement/#. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EU (2016b). Implementing the EU-Turkey Statement: Questions and Answers. Brussels: European Union (EU). Available from: https://www.avrupa.info.tr/sites/default/files/2017-09/MEMO-16-4321_EN_0.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EU (2017). Relocation and Resettlement: State of Play. Brussels: European Commission, European Union (EU). Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/20170516_update_of_the_factsheet_on_relocation_and_resettlement_en.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EU (2018). European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, Greece Factsheet. Brussels: European Commission, European Union (EU). Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/echo/where/europe/greece_en. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

EUI (2016). Syrian Refugees: A Snapshot of the Crisis in the Middle East and Europe. Florence: European University Institute (EUI). Available from: http://www.syrianrefugees.eu. [Last Accessed on: Oct 2, 2018].

Eurostat (2017a). Asylum Quarterly Report. Luxembourg: European Union (EU). Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quarterly_report. [Last Accessed on: Oct 2, 2018].

Eurostat (2017b). Asylum Statistics. Luxembourg: European Union (EU). Available from: http://www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Asylum_statistics. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Eurostat (2017c). Database: Asylum and Managed Migration. Luxembourg: European Union (EU). Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/asylum-and-managed-migration/data/database. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Feikert-Ahalt C (2016). Refugee Law and Policy: United Kingdom. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/refugee-law/unitedkingdom.php. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Figueroa D (2016). Refugee Law and Policy: Italy. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/refugee-law/italy.php. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) (2016). Monthly Data Collection on the Current Migration Situation in the EU. Vienna: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Available from: http://fra.europa.eu/en/theme/asylummigration-borders/overviews/december-2016. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Gesley J (2015). Germany: Parliament Adopts Legislative Package on Asylum and Refugees. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available from: http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/germany-parliament-adopts-legislative-package-on-asylum-andrefugees/. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Gesley J (2016a). Germany: Proposed Tightening of Asylum Rules. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available from: http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/germany-proposed-tightening-of-asylum-rules/. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Gesley J (2016b). Refugee Law and Policy: Germany. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Gower M and Cromarty H (2016). Syrian refugees and the UK. House of Commons Library, 6805, 1-17. Available from: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/Syrian%20Refugees%20and%20The%20UK.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Oct 2, 2018].

HO/UK (2017). Syrian Vulnerable Persons Resettlement Scheme (VPRS): Guidance for Local Authorities and Partners. London: Home Office (HO), United Kingdom (UK). Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/631369/170711_Syrian_Resettlement_Updated_Fact_Sheet_final.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Hunt A and Wheeler B (2018). Brexit: All You Need to Know About the UK Leaving the EU. BBC News. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Karakoulaki M and Tosidis D. (2017). EU-Turkey Refugee Deal Overburdens Greek Islands. Bonn: Deutsche Welle (DW). Available from: https://www.dw.com/en/eu-turkey-refugee-deal-overburdens-greek-islands/a-37297822. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Karlsen E (2016). Refugee resettlement to Australia: What are the facts? Parliamentary Library Research Paper Series, Parliament of Australia, 2016-2017, 1-17. Available from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1617/RefugeeResettlement. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Kasimis C and Kassimi C (2004). Greece: A History of Migration. Migration Information Source and Policy Institute. Available from: https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/greece-history-migration. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Klugman J (2009). Human Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Available from: http://www.hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/269/hdr_2009_en_complete.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Langfield M (1996). Espresso Bar to EMC: A Thirty-Year History of the Ecumenical Migration Centre, Melbourne. Clayton: Monash University. https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/26650278.

Loewenstein A (2016). Australia’s Refugee Policies: A Global Inspiration for all the Wrong Reasons. London: The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/18/australias-refugee-policies-a-global-inspiration-for-all-the-wrongreasons. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Magliveras KD (2011). Migration Law in Greece. Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

Manacorda M, Manning A and Wadsworth J (2012). The impact of immigration on the structure of wages: Theory and evidence from Britain. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(1), 120-151. doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01049.x.

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (2013). Lebanon: Aid Lags Far Behind as Syrian Refugees Increase. New York: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) [Doctors Without Borders]. Available from: https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/what-we-do/news-stories/news/lebanon-aid-lags-far-behind-syrian-refugees-increase. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (2016). Out of Sight. New York: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) [Doctors Without Borders]. Available from: https://www.msf.fr/sites/default/files/out_of_sight_130218.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Migration Watch United Kingdom (MWUK) (2016). A summary history of immigration to Britain. Migration Watch United Kingdom, 6, 1-7. Available from: https://www.migrationwatchuk.org/pdfs/BP6_1.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Nelson K and Saltmarsh M (2017). Scotland Sets Example, Resettling 2000 Syrian Refugees. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/news/latest/2017/12/5a3947c94/scotlandsets-example-resettling-2000-syrian-refugees.html. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Oliver A (2014). The Lowy Institute Poll 2014. Sydney: Lowy Institute. Available from: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/2014_lowy_institute_poll_0.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Open Science Foundations (OSF) (2012). Italian Migrant Policy, Timeline. New York: Open Society Justice Initiative, Open Science Foundations (OSF). Available from: https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/italy-timeline-20120212.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Operational Data Portal (2018). Syrian Regional Refugee Response. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/syria. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Ostrand N (2015). The Syrian refugee crisis: A comparison of responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 3(3), 255-279. https://doi.org/10.1177/233150241500300301.

Ottaviano GIP and Peri G (2012). Rethinking the effect of immigration on wages. Journal of the European Economic Association,

(1), 152-197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01052.x.

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM) (2016a). Syria Crisis: Fair Share Analysis, 2016. Boston: Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (Oxfam). Available from: https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/bn-syria-fair-shares-analysis-010216-en.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM) (2016b). Resettling 10 Percent of Syrian Refugees: The Commitment Needed at the Geneva Conference. Boston: Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (Oxfam). Available from: https://www.oxfam.de/system/files/syria-resettling-ten-percent-refugees-290316-en.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Papademetriou T (2016). Refugee Law and Policy: Greece. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/refugee-law/greece.php. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Pearson E (2016). Will Australia Really Close the Manus Island Detention Center? New York: Human Rights Watch. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/08/18/will-australia-really-close-manus-island-detention-center. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Poushter J (2015). Refugees Stream into Europe, Where they are not Welcomed with Open Arms. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Available from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/24/refugees-stream-into-europe-where-they-are-notwelcomed-with-open-arms/. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Poushter J (2016). European Opinions of the Refugee Crisis in 5 Charts. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Available from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/16/european-opinions-of-the-refugee-crisis-in-5-charts. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Power P (2010). Australian Attitudes to the Acceptance of Refugees. Paper Presented at the Racism Revisited: Anti-racism Leadership and Practice, Perth. Available from: https://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/r/spch/100320-MurdochUni-PPower.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Rossi E and Vitali L (2014). Refugees perceptions, rights compliance and the implications on European reception policy: Results from a survey. Sociology and Anthropology, 2(5), 169-178. doi: https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2014.020501.

Seidle FL. (2016). Resettling Syrian Refugees: The Canadian Advantage. Montreal: Policy Options. https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2014.020501

Taylor L (2015). Poll Shows Australians Back Rise in Refugee Intake, but Criticise Abbott’s Handling of Crisis. London: The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/sep/09/poll-shows-australians-back-rise-in-refugee-intakebut-criticise-abbotts-handling-of-crisis. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2004). Protracted Refugee Situations. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4a54bc00d.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2015). Population Statistics. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2016). Europe Resettlement. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2016/. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017a). Resettlement Data. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: //www.unhcr.org/en-us/resettlement-data.html. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017b). Mediterranean Situation. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/mediterranean. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2018a). Syria Emergency. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/syria-emergency.html. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2018b). 3RP - Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan 2018-2019 in Response to the Syria Crisis. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: https://www.reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/3RP-Regional-Strategic-Overview-2018-19.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2018c). Resettlement. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Available from: https://www.unhcr.org/resettlement.html. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Ward K (2004). Key Issues: UK Asylum Law and Process. London: The Information Centre about Asylum and Refugees (ICAR). Available from: http://www.icar.org.uk/legal%20guide%202006.pdf. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].

Wintour P (2016). Save the Children Hails UK’s “Significant Move” on Child Refugees. New York: The Guardian. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jan/28/save-the-children-unaccompanied-child-refugees-home-office. [Last Accessed on: Sep 28, 2018].


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijps.v4i1.457
(509 Abstract Views, 209 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Ernesto F. L. Amaral, Mahlet A. Woldetsadik, Gabriela Armenta

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.