Vol 3, No 2 (2017)





Table of Contents

Articles

by Patrick Heuveline, Savet Hong
118 Views, 144 PDF Downloads

We analyze the effects of household structure on education in Cambodia. Consistent evidence documents that residence with both biological parents benefits children’s education in Western countries. Elsewhere, the issue is gaining more attention with the growing number of “left-behind children” due to adult migration and, possibly, changes in family behavior. The extant record is both thinner and more contrasted, however. Controlling for the presence of grandparents and some household characteristics, we find children residing with both biological parents are more likely to be enrolled in school, in the appropriate grade for their age, and literate than those living with only one parent. The effect sizes appear comparable to those in most Western countries, but the effects shrink or even disappear when grandparents are present. The results for children not residing with either parent are mixed, possibly resulting from negative effects for some children and positive selection for some others. 

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Articles

by Ashish Kumar Upadhyay, Swati Srivastava, Chhavi Paul
500 Views, 246 PDF Downloads, 29 Supplementary Material Downloads

Unlike its short-term impact on consumption and income, forced migration is expected to deliver a permanent shock to the overall well-being of households, specifically children in the stage of infancy. Studies on the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being are few in number. Therefore, the present study is intended to examine the consequences of forced migration during infancy on child cognition at later age. We hypothesized that the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being can be mitigated by social support. The study used longitudinal data from three waves of the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in 2002, 2006–2007, and 2009 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. We used bivariate and multivariate regression models to analyze the consequences of forced migration in early childhood on the cognitive well-being in later childhood. The information on forced migration was collected in Wave 1 (at age 1), whereas the information on the cognitive well-being of the children was collected in Wave 3 (at age 8). Child cognitive well-being was measured using scores obtained by the children on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), math, Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA), and memory tests. The results of the bivariate analysis show that the mean PPVT, math, EGRA, and memory scores obtained by children from the migrated households were lower than those obtained by children from the non-migrated households. Results of the multivariate linear regression models also show that children from the migrated households were statistically less likely to achieve higher scores on math (coefficient: -2.008, 95% C.I.-3.108, -0.908), EGRA (coefficient: -0.746, 95% C.I.-1.366, -0.126), and memory (coefficient: -0.503, 95% C.I. -0.834, -0.173) as compared to children from the non-migrated households. Our findings also indicate that the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being was not mitigated by social support. Findings of this study conclude that forced migration during infancy has a significant effect on child cognitive well-being at later age. Therefore, interventions should be made, paying attention to the most vulnerable children who were displaced during critical development ages.


Articles

by Chalachew Getahun Desta
23 Views, 42 PDF Downloads
Theoretical work relating economic effect of children suggests that labor market participation decreases for mothers with large number of young children and increases when children are adults. The majority of empirical studies find results consistent with this expectation, but there are some studies which fail to confirm this theoretical prediction for the developing countries. This paper used data from a household survey of rural and urban married women to test the theoretical prediction that labor market participation decreases for mothers with large number of young children and increases when children are adults. Results show that when all households are considered, children seem to have positive effects on the probability of the mother’s work participation. However, when household lifecycle and rural-urban location differences are considered, coefficients are negative (but not statistically insignificant) for urban households with large number of young children and positive (and statistically significant) for those households with more adult children; whereas for rural households, these coefficient signs are reversed. Results from the quantitative data combined with qualitative narratives suggest that large numbers of young children do not prohibit rural mothers from working.
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Research Articles

by Samuel Abera Zewdie, Vissého Adjiwanou
102 Views, 111 PDF Downloads

The study analyzed infant mortality and its risk factors in South Africa. It aimed to examine infant mortality in the country by taking into account the hierarchical nature of the problem and investigate the with-in country variation in modeling. In addition to the usual individual level risk factors of infant mortality, living standard, mother’s education, and income inequality were defined at municipal level, while HIV prevalence was fixed at province level. A multilevel logistic regression model was then fitted with Bayesian MCMC parameter estimation procedure using the 2011 South African census data. Most of the demographic and socioeconomic variables identified at individual level were found significant. More remarkably, the result indicated that communities with better living standard and women's education were associated with lower infant mortality rates, while higher income inequality and HIV prevalence in the communities were associated higher levels of infant mortality. The changes in infants’ odds of death were estimated to be 26%, -21%, 13% and 8% respectively for HIV, women’s education, income inequality and level of the living standard. In addition, unobservable municipal and province level random effects significantly affected the level of infant mortality rates. 

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