Vol 1, No 1 (2015)

Table of Contents

Articles

by Danan Gu
1815 Views, 1661 PDF Downloads
It brings me great pleasure to announce the launch of International Journal of Population Stu-dies (IJPS) published by Whioce Publishing Pte Ltd. IJPS is a new open access, multidiscipli-nary journal that aims to publish high quality original research and reviews of recent advances and emerging issues in population processes, including dynamics of fertility, mortality, and migration and linkages with socioeconomic and environmental change across time, space, and cultures.
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Articles

by Bernardo Lanza Queiroz
1783 Views, 1621 PDF Downloads
I am proud to present the first issue of the International Journal of Population Studies (IJPS) published by Whioce Publishing Pte Ltd. One might ask what is the need of yet another journal in demography and population studies? I argue that IJPS comes at the right time with the right purpose. It is a multidisciplinary journal (more details in Danan Gu’s editorial note) on demography and population studies, it is also an open access journal, aiming to reach a broad range of researchers.
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Articles

by Zachary Zimmer, Mira Hidajat, Yasuhiko Saito
1955 Views, 1721 PDF Downloads
The purpose of this research is to determine whether disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) in China has been increasing more rapidly than total life expectancy (TLE). Such a scenario would be consistent with a compression of morbidity, a situation that is especially desirable in a country experiencing rapid population aging and gains in old-age longevity. Us-ing the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study, an exponential survival regression is used to calculate TLE. The Sullivan method is then employed for computing DFLE. Results for a 65 and older sample are compared across data collected during two periods, the first with a 2002 baseline and a 2005 follow-up (N=15,641) and the second with a 2008 baseline and a 2011 follow-up (N=15,622). The first comparison is by age and sex. The second comparison divides the sample further by rural/urban residence and education. The ratio of DFLE/TLE across periods provides evidence of whether older Chinese are living both longer and healthier lives. The findings are favorable for the total population aged 65+, but improvements are only statistically significant for females. Results also suggest heterogeneous compression occurring across residential status with the urban population experiencing more favorable changes than their rural counterparts. Results both portend a compression of morbidity and continuing dis-advantage for rural residents who may not be participating in population-wide improvements in health.
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Articles

by Yasuhiko Saito, Shieva Davarian, Atsuhiko Takahashi, Edward Schneider, Eileen M. Crimmins
1855 Views, 1841 PDF Downloads
The Japanese have the highest life expectancy in the world while the United States (U.S.) has relatively low life expectancy. Furthermore, the Americans have relatively poorer health compared to the Japanese. Examination of the treatment of specific conditions such as hypertension in these two countries may provide insights into how the health care system con-tributes to the relative health in these two countries. In this study, we focus on the treatment of hypertension, as this is the most common condition requiring therapeutic interventions in se-niors. This study examines hypertension diagnoses and controls in nationally representative samples of the older populations (68 years old or older) of Japan and the U.S. Data come from two nationally representative samples: the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (NUJLSOA) (n = 2,309) and the U.S. Health and Retirement (HRS) Study (n = 3,517). The overall prevalence of hypertension is higher in Japan than the U.S. Undiagnosed hyperten-sion is about four times higher in Japan than in the U.S., while the control of blood pressure is more than four times higher in the U.S. than in Japan. Thus, the use of antihypertensive medi-cation is much more frequent and more effective in the U.S. The medical care system seems to be more effective in controlling hypertension in the U.S. than in Japan. This may be due to the more aggressive diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the U.S.
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Articles

by Danan Gu
1829 Views, 1704 PDF Downloads
Successful aging has extended from the biomedical-oriented model to the biomedi-cal-and-psychosocial mixed model. However, few studies have investigated the subtypes of the joint classification between subjective (psychosocial-oriented) (SSA) and objective (biomedi-cal-oriented) (OSA) measures to identify and distinguish different risk groups. This study aims to examine how concordance and discordance between SSA and OSA are associated with sub-sequent mortality based on five waves of a nationwide longitudinal survey in China from 2000 to 2011 with 30,948 sampled persons aged 65 and older. SSA was measured by absence of poor life satisfaction, poor self-rated health, and psychological distress, while OSA was measured by absence of disability, cognitive impairment, and chronic diseases. We then defined a variable with four subtypes of concordance and discordance from these two dichotomous variables: Type I (not-OSA & not-SSA), Type II (not-OSA & SSA), Type III (OSA & not-SSA) and Type IV (OSA & SSA). Types I and IV are concordance types, while Types II and III are discordance types. The results showed that a negative association between Type IV (SSA & OSA) and risk of mortality was universal over age groups and sexes. Compared to Type I (not-SSA & not-OSA), Type IV (SSA & OSA) has a 25–71% lower risk of mortality, depending on age group and sex, after controlling for a rich set of confounders. Concordance and discordance between OSA and SSA provide added power in predicting subsequent mortality. Public health programs should target those more vulnerable subtypes to promote successful aging.
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Articles

by Giambattista Salinari, Gustavo De Santis
1778 Views, 1721 PDF Downloads
This paper estimated three parameters related to demographic ageing, i.e., the acce-leration in mortality rates as people get older. These parameters are: (i) the age when the process begins (onset), (ii) the rate of ageing in a (simple) Gompertz model and (iii) the rate of ageing in a (more elaborate) Gamma-Gompertz model. These three indicators were estimated on the basis of female cohorts born in seven European countries between 1890 and 1919. Our results indicated a progressively earlier onset and a steeper rise in the rate of ageing in recent cohorts, i.e., ageing seems to have accelerated over time. The reasons for these shifts are still unknown, but due to their similarity with the results of a vast body of experiments of calorie restriction on lab animals, we suggested here that the changed dietary regime of humans since the end of the 19th century may have played a part in the evolution of their mortality schedule.
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Articles

by Raphael J. Nawrotzki, Fernando Riosmena, Lori M. Hunter, Daniel M. Runfola
1775 Views, 1674 PDF Downloads
In the face of climate change-induced economic uncertainties, households may em-ploy migration as an adaptation strategy to diversify their livelihood portfolio through remit-tances. However, it is unclear whether such climate-related migration will be documented or undocumented. In this study we combined detailed migration histories with daily temperature and precipitation information from 214 weather stations to investigate whether climate change more strongly impacted undocumented or documented migrations from 68 rural Mexican mu-nicipalities to the U.S. from 1986−1999. We employed two measures of climate change, the warm spell duration index (WSDI) and precipitation during extremely wet days (R99PTOT). Results from multi-level event-history models demonstrated that climate-related international migration from rural Mexico was predominantly undocumented. We conclude that programs to facilitate climate change adaptations in rural Mexico may be more effective in reducing undo-cumented border crossings than increasing border fortification.
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Articles

by Frank T. Denton, Byron G. Spencer
1738 Views, 1628 PDF Downloads
Immigration is a possible instrument for offsetting longer-run adverse effects of population aging on per capita income. Our “laboratory” is a fictitious country Alpha to which we assign demographic characteristics typical of a country experiencing population aging. Si-mulations indicate that a very high immigration rate with heavy concentration in younger working ages might be required to keep per capita income from declining. More rapid produc-tivity growth would also offset population aging as would higher rates of labour participation of older people. Longer life expectancy, taken alone, would lower per capita real income, as would higher fertility rates.
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Articles

by Kuang-Chi Chang
1742 Views, 1649 PDF Downloads
Although migration scholars have demonstrated that migrant workers behave diffe-rently from locals when looking for jobs, past research in China’s urban labor market has pre-sented puzzling results by showing that individuals (both rural migrants and urban natives alike) predominantly rely on social networks when job searching. Using data collected by a 2008 survey in Shanghai, this study nonetheless reveals significant differences between the two groups’ job searching methods insofar as migrants are less likely to use hierarchy method to find jobs. I also show that while both migrants and urban natives often relied on network me-thod when looking for employment, the pattern of such reliance decreases over time. I suggest job search methods, particular network behavior, can be viewed as strategies that individuals employ to solve problems in their specific institutional environment, and such strategies are likely to evolve in response to the changing opportunities and incentives in the corresponding institutional segments for Chinese migrants and natives.
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Articles

by Heini Väisänen, Rachel K. Jones
1748 Views, 1712 PDF Downloads
There is a lack of research examining changes in women’s fertility attitudes over relatively short periods of time. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how women’s attempts to get pregnant and their desire to avoid pregnancy changed over six months’ time as well as which characteristics and circumstances were associated with these changes. Using multinomial regression, we analyzed two panels of data from a sample of approximately 3,000 U.S. adult women gathered within six months apart. Only 4% of the women were trying to get pregnant at both time points, but six percent went from trying to not or vice versa. Two-thirds reported a strong desire to avoid pregnancy at both points, but 9% transitioned from strong to not strong and an additional 7% transitioned from not strong to strong. Women who transitioned to a more serious romantic relationship were at increased risk of transitioning to trying to become pregnant and, not surprisingly, to a weaker pregnancy avoidance. Some of the variables we tested, including changes in employment status and race/ethnicity, were asso-ciated with one outcome but not the other. The results highlight the importance of taking a ho-listic perspective of women’s lives when studying pregnancy intentions and in reproductive health care services such as contraceptive counseling. Context matters and it may change rapidly.
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