Vol 2, No 1 (2016)

Table of Contents

Articles

by Anastasia Kostaki, Javier M. Moguerza, Alberto Olivares, Stelios Psarakis
793 Views, 733 PDF Downloads
The graduation of age-specific demographic rates is a subject of special interest in many dis-ciplines as demography, biostatistics, actuarial practice, and social planning. For estimating the unknown age-specific probabilities of the various demographic phenomena, some graduation technique must be applied to the corresponding empirical rates, under the assumption that the true probabilities follow a smooth pattern through age. The classical way for graduating demographic rates is parametric modelling. However, for graduation purposes, nonparametric techniques can also be adapted. This work provides an adaptation, and an evaluation of kernels and Support Vector Machines (SVM) in the context of graduation of demographic rates.
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Articles

by Bruno Yempabou Lankoande
720 Views, 684 PDF Downloads

In the context of the post 2015 agenda, disaggregation of mortality indicators is needed to assess health inequalities within populations. However, producing sub-national estimates of adult mortality is notably difficult in the absence of death registration. Using Burkina Faso as a case study, this paper revisits the main avenues to quantify differences in adult mortality between the ages of 15 and 60 according to urban/rural residence. Estimates are based on reports on the survival of parents and siblings collected in surveys and in the 2006 census, and compared to levels inferred from recent household deaths or inferences based on child mortality. Results indicate that in Burkina Faso, adults living in urban areas still benefit from a health advantage compared to their rural counterparts. Thus, efforts made in reducing adult mortality in rural settings should be intensified. In terms of methods, this analysis shows the value of asking additional questions about the place of residence of close relatives to avoid misclassification errors. The approach adopted here could be implemented in other countries to facilitate the measurement of spatial inequalities in health indicators for all ages when monitoring Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs).

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Articles

by Akansha Singh, Laishram Ladusingh
761 Views, 941 PDF Downloads
This study aims to examine the sex differentials in life expectancy at birth and life disparity, and to estimate the age-specific contribution of the differences for India and its major states. Life dispari-ty measures the variation in the distribution of deaths, and life expectancy at birth measures the average length of life. Complete life tables generated from death rates and abridged life tables of the Sample Reg-istration System in India from 1970–1975 to 2006–2010 were used to fulfill the research goals. Stepwise replacement algorithm was used for the decomposition of sex differences in life expectancy at birth and in life disparity. The results indicate that the increase in life expectancy at birth and decline in life disparity was higher for females. The sex differential was more prominent in urban areas than in rural areas. A ma-jority of the states in India experienced changes in the direction and magnitude of sex differentials in life expectancy at birth and life disparity from 1970–1975 to 2006–2010. The sex differentials in life expec-tancy at birth and life disparity in 1970–1975 were primarily attributed to child mortality, whereas the sex differentials in recent decades were attributed to adult mortality.
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Articles

by Yiqing Yang, Ming Wen
797 Views, 664 PDF Downloads
This study aims to identify correlates of satisfaction in late life parental role, using a sample of 432 older parents (not couples) aged 60 to 79 with 1,223 adult children living in one of the least devel-oped counties of northern China. Drawing upon the symbolic interactionism perspective and Chin-ese cultural emphasis on filial piety, we tested a parental satisfaction model including a set of vari-ables capturing parental perceptions of relationship quality with each of their grown children (hereafter offspring), expectations of various forms of support from offspring, and evaluations of offspring’s filial piety (being filial). Most parents in our sample were satisfied with their parental role. Logistic regression analysis indicated that getting along with offspring, offspring met parental expectations in terms of pro-viding emotional, practical, and financial support, and offspring being filial were significantly associated with parental satisfaction, respectively, net of parent and offspring characteristics. When simultaneously examined in the full model, however, only two correlates remained significant: getting along with offspring and offspring being filial. Offspring’s filial piety was associated with parental satisfaction in a dose-re-sponse manner, indicating the importance of considering multiple children in a family on parental well-being. Findings underscore the significance of parental perceptions of relationship quality with offspring and offspring’s filial piety for parental satisfaction. Findings suggest that filial piety, a multifaceted concept deeply rooted in Confucianism, continues to exert a strong influence today on Chinese family relationships despite the dramatic socioeconomic and cultural transformation China has been experiencing in the past three decades.
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Articles

by Sylvia Szabo, Sinead Mowlds, Joan Manuel Claros, Anuja Kar, William Knechtel, Mariella Di Ciommo, Ima Kashim
943 Views, 697 PDF Downloads
Ensuring effective accountability mechanisms will be a pre-requisite for achieving food and nutrition security and thus, advancing the progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2). Here we discuss and summarise the findings of the ONE Campaign-facilitated accountability working group for data users, which deliberated between November 2015 and February 2016, and involved expert consultations from civil society organisations, research institutions, and academia. We provide an overview of the key challenges identified by data users in relation to nutrition and food security, propose a novel conceptual framework within which these challenges should be analysed, and offer a set of con-crete policy and programmatic recommendations to address the recurrent bottlenecks. The paper con-cludes by providing a summary of key findings within the larger context of relevant global initiatives and processes, such as Nutrition for Growth Summit, the Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition network, and the United Nations General Assembly.
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Articles

by Jillian Gedeon, Saw Nanda Hsue, Angel M Foster
683 Views, 637 PDF Downloads
For over half a century, political conflict combined with an overall lack of economic develop-ment has resulted in the displacement of millions of people both within Eastern Burma and to neighbour-ing Thailand. Given the overarching context, in conflict-affected regions of Burma, women face tremend-ous challenges in trying to obtain high quality, comprehensive reproductive health services. Drawing from interviews we conducted in Tak province, Thailand with 31 migrant and refugee women from Burma, this article explores women’s lived experiences along the border and focuses on the ways that complex, overlapping barriers impact women’s reproductive health decision-making at different points in their reproductive lives. Our results show that reproductive experiences are highly dependent on the woman’s place of living mixed with her legal status and financial resources. Combined with socio-cultural taboos and externalized and internalized stigma, these dynamics blend to place constraints on women’s autonomy and self-actualization. The way in which women’s experiences are shaped by these barriers offers insights into priorities for education and programming to help improve reproductive health services in this protracted conflict setting.
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Articles

by Sanjit Sarkar
1242 Views, 1124 PDF Downloads
Using a cross-sectional study of 485 sample households in 2013, the present paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of child malnutrition among children under the age of five in West Bengal, India. As a part of this investigation, children’s underweight status, wasting, and stunting were examined in order to determine child nutritional status using the WHO growth standard. We performed bivariate analyses in order to elucidate differentials in nutritional indices and fitted multinomial logistic regression models to examine the net effect of different socio-economic factors on the likelihood of child malnutri-tion. Analysis results revealed stunting (51%) as the most common form of malnutrition among children aged under five, followed by underweight status (41%), and wasting (22%).Gender discrimination among children increases with age, whereby girls are more deprived (as measured by nutritional indic-es) compared to boys later in childhood relative to younger ages. Results from multinomial analyses re-veal age, religion, caste, and birth-order of the child as significant predictors of child’s nutritional status.
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Articles

by Mattew O. Oluleke, Akintayo O. Ogunwale, Oyedunni S. Arulogun, Ademola L. Adelekan
780 Views, 750 PDF Downloads
The study investigated dietary intake knowledge and reasons for food restriction during preg-nancy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey involved 530 pregnant women visiting 35 primary health care (PHC) centers in Ile-Ife. Interview-er-administered questionnaire used to collect data included a 30-point knowledge scale and food restric-tion related questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square at P = 0.05. Mean age was 27.0 ± 5.3 years, 44.5% had tertiary education and 11.1% earned above ₦50,000 monthly (ap-proximately US$315). Mean knowledge score was 23.6 ± 4.2 and 75.5% had good knowledge. Higher education was significantly associated with good knowledge of dietary intake. Reasons for food restric-tion during pregnancy included cultural taboos (36.5%) and religious beliefs (12.1%). Major foods that were restricted or avoided for cultural reasons were protein and vitamin-rich foods such as snail (97.5%) and walnut (84.0%). Foods avoided based on religious beliefs included pork (87.4%) and dog (76.9%). A higher proportion (94.8%) of respondents who earn more than ₦50,000 avoided foods due to cultural taboos (94.8%) compared with those without monthly income (58.3%) (P≤0.05). The proportions of respondents who avoided foods due to cultural taboos with no formal, primary, secondary, and tertiary education were 95.5%, 93.8%, 79.8%, and 86.4% respectively (P≤0.05). Overall, respondents were knowledgeable about dietary intake. However, cultural taboos and religious beliefs were major reasons for food restriction among pregnant women and were more pronounced among women with low educa-tion and low monthly income. Nutrition education interventions are needed to address the phenomenon.
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