Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology

Editor-in-ChiefSheng, Jinyu

ISSN: 2424-9505 (Online)

ISSN: 2424-8959 (Print)

Journal Abbreviation: Satell Oceanogr Meteorol

Publication Frequency: bi-annual

Article Processing Charges (APC): Click here for more details

Publishing Model: Open Access

Journal no: 10P

About the Journal

The Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology (SOM) was launched in 2016, in response to the growing use of remotely sensed satellite data in understanding and identifying important processes and phenomena occurring in the atmosphere and ocean. The SOM provides space for oceanographers, meteorologists, hydrologists and climatologists to publish their research papers on theory, science, technology and applications of satellite remote sensing data of the ocean, atmosphere and climate.

Recently Published Articles


Xiaoming Zhai
46 Views, 79 PDF Downloads
The annual cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and its influence on eddy momentum fluxes are investigated using an updated record of satellite altimeter data. It is found that there is a phase difference between the annual cycles of EKE in the western boundary current regions and EKE in the interior of the subtropical gyres, suggesting that different mechanisms may be at work in different parts of the subtropical gyres. The annual cycles of EKE averaged in the two hemispheres are found to be of similar magnitude but in opposite phase. As a result, the globally-averaged EKE shows little seasonal variability. The longer record of altimeter data used in this study has brought out a clearer and simpler picture of eddy momentum fluxes in the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. Considerable seasonal variations in eddy momentum fluxes are found in the western boundary current regions, which potentially play an important role in modulating the strength of the western boundary currents and their associated recirculation gyres on the seasonal time scale.


Guang Jun Zhang, Mingcheng Wang
40 Views, 23 PDF Downloads

How high convective clouds can go is of great importance to climate. Cloud ice and liquid water that detrain near the top of convective cores are important for the formation of anvil clouds and thus impact cloud radiative forcing and the Earth’s radiation budget. This study uses CloudSat observations to evaluate convective cloud top heights in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). Results show that convective cloud top heights in the tropics are much lower than observed by CloudSat, by more than 2 km on average. Temperature and moisture anomalies from climatological means are composited for convective clouds of different heights for both observations and model simulation. It is found that convective environment is warmer and moister, and the anomalies are larger for clouds of higher tops. For a given convective cloud top height, the corresponding atmosphere in CAM5 is more convectively unstable than what the CloudSat observations indicate, suggesting that there is too much entrainment into convective clouds in the model.



Jinyu Sheng
53 Views, 30 PDF Downloads

The journal of Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology (SOM) was launched in 2016 for inspiring and disseminating research papers on theory, science, technology and applications of satellite remote sensing data of the ocean, atmosphere and climate. We welcome research papers in areas of (a) original research results from satellite observations of the regional and global ocean and atmosphere, (b) calibration/validation and research related to future satellite missions, and (c) new satellite-derived products and climate records constructed from satellite observations. We also welcome high-quality research papers in broad research areas including but not limiting to (i) oceanography and marine science; (ii) meteorology and atmospheric science; (iii) air-sea, physical-biological and physical-chemical interactions, and (iv) studies of the Earth’s climate system.



Tao Xie, Li Zhao, William Perrie, He Fang
18 Views, 25 PDF Downloads

Climate change, increasing activities in areas like offshore oil and gas exploration, marine transport, eco-tourism, in additional to the usual activities of northerners resident are leading to reductions in sea ice. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improvement in the sea ice detection in polar areas. Starting from the mechanism of electromagnetic scattering, based on an empirical dielectric constant model, we apply EM multi-reflection and transmission formulas for coefficients between the air-ice interface and sea water-ice interface to develop a model for estimating the capability of detection of sea ice and ice thickness based on a pulse radar system, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Although the dielectric constant of sea ice is less than that of sea water, this model can provide a rational methodology as the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of sea ice is larger than that of sea water due to multiple reflections. The numerical simulations of this model showed that the convergence rate is rapid. With 3 or 4 reflections and transmissions (depending on temperature, salinity, and dielectric constants of sea ice and water), truncation errors can be satisfied using theoretical considerations and practical applications. The model is applied to estimate the capability of SAR to discriminate ice from water. The numerical results suggested that the model ability to measure ice thickness decreases with increasing radar incident angles and increases with increasing radar pulse width. Reflection and transmission coefficients decrease monotonically with ice thickness and are saturated for ice thicknesses above a certain critical value which depends on SAR incidence angle, frequency and dielectric constants of sea ice. The capability to detect ice thickness for given different bands of pulse radar widths can be estimated with this model.



Qingtao Song, Zhaohui Wang
86 Views, 64 PDF Downloads
Motivated by the shortcomings of radio frequency interferences (RFI) associated with the spaceborne L-band radiometers near the Northwest Pacific and previous study near the Amazon plume, this study presents a sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieval algorithm from the microwave radiometer onboard the HY-2A satellite. The SSS signal is improved by differentiating the reflectance between the C and X band. A reflectance calibration method is proposed by using a combination of radiative transfer model (RTM) and the Klein-Swift emissivity model. Evaluations of the retrieved SSS from the HY-2A satellite indicate that the root mean square error (RMSE) is about 0.35 psu on 0.5 degree grid spacing and monthly time scale which is comparable to the accuracy of SMOS and Aquarius-SAC/D satellites.


Hui Yang, Yuanfa Gong, Gui-Ying Yang
68 Views, 204 PDF Downloads
The relationship between tropical convective activities and meridional (north-south) migration of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) in winter (December-February) is investigated for improving our knowledge of processes affecting the meridional migration of the EAJS. The monthly mean fields of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) produced by NCAR and monthly atmospheric circulations produced by the NCEP/NCAR are used in this study. For 31 winter seasons between 1980 and 2011, the meridional migration of the winter EAJS is found to be strongly correlated with the present and preceding conditions of tropical convection over Indonesia. The anomalies in the tropical convection over the region in the preceding autumn and even preceding summer are a very useful indicator for the abnormal meridional migration of the wintertime EAJS. When the tropical convection over Indonesia weakens (strengthens), the EAJS has an abnormal southward (northward) migration. The atmospheric circulation associated with the abnormal meridional migration of the EAJS features abnormal air temperatures over the EAJS and its south side. The center of abnormal air temperatures occurs over the region south of the Yangtze River. Abnormal air pressures generated by abnormal air temperatures lead to abnormal winds. In the case of weakened tropical convection (positive OLR anomaly) over Indonesia, ascending motion of air mass over Indonesia is reduced, and the strength of Hadley circulation is weakened over the meridional range of the western Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the high-level air mass to the south of the core of the EAJS abnormally ascends and cools and the nearly southerly divergent winds at high-altitudes weaken, leading to significant reduction of heat transport from tropics to the southern China, with negative anomalies of air temperatures in the EAJS and its south side. The above processes increase thermal winds to the south of the Yangtze River and enhance the high-level westerly winds. To the north of the Yangtze River, both thermal winds and the high-level westerly winds are reduced. As a result, the EAJS has an abnormal south migration. In the case of enhanced tropical convection (negative OLR anomaly) over Indonesia, the opposite happens, in which Hadley circulation strengthens, the air mass to the south of the core of the EAJS abnormally descends and warms, heat transport increases from tropics to the southern China with positive air temperatures anomalies over the EAJS and its south side, and the EAJS has an abnormal northward migration.


Xingrong Chen, Yi Cai, Fangli Qiao
69 Views, 66 PDF Downloads

The physical decomposition method suggested by Qian (2012) is used to examine the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and anomaly (SSTA) in the Indian Ocean (IO) for the period 1945.2003. The monthly mean SSTs taken from the global ocean reanalysis produced by the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) are decomposed into four terms. The first term is the zonally averaged monthly climatological SST ([Tt(ϕ)]), which features relatively warm surface waters in the tropical IO and relatively colder surface waters over the southern IO. This term also has a relatively low SST pool between the Equator and 20°N. The SST at the center of the pool in summer is about 1-2°C lower than in spring and autumn. The second term is the spatially-varying monthly climatological SSTA (Tt*(λ,ϕ)), due mainly to the topographic effect and seasonal variation in wind forcing. The values of Tt*(λ,ϕ) are negative over the western coastal waters and positive over the eastern coastal and shelf waters in the tropical and northern IO. The third term is the zonally-averaged transient SSTA([T(ϕ,t)']Y). The largest values of [T(ϕ,t)']Y occur over the subtropical and mid-latitudes of the IO, which differs from the SSTA in the tropical waters of the Pacific Ocean. Time series of zonally and meridionally averaged T(ϕ,t)'Y in the tropical-subtropical IO is strongly correlated with the Indian Ocean basin-wide (IOBW) mode. The fourth term is the spatially-varying transient SSTA (T(λ,ϕ,t)*Y']. The REOF analysis of the fourth term demonstrates that the first REOF is correlated strongly with the South Indian Ocean Dipole (SIOD) mode. The second REOF is correlated strongly with the equatorial Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode. The third REOF is highly correlated with the tropical IOBW mode.



Bartolomeo Doronzo, Stefano Taddei, Carlo Brandini
135 Views, 100 PDF Downloads
In a previous study an improved Maximum Cross-Correlation technique, called Multi-Window Maximum Cross-Correlation (MW-MCC), was proposed, and applied to noise-free synthetic images in order to show its potential and limits in oceanographic applications. In this work, instead, the application of MW-MCC to high resolution MODIS images, and its capability to provide useful and realistic results for ocean currents, is studied. When applied to real satellite images, the MW-MCC is subject to cloud cover and image quality problems. As a consequence the number of useful MODIS images is greatly reduced. However, for every MODIS image, multiple spec-tral bands are available, and it is possible to apply the MW-MCC algorithm to the same scene as many times as the number of these bands, increasing the possibility of finding valid current vectors. Moreover, the comparison among the results from different spectral bands allows to verify both the consistency of the computed current vectors and the validity of using a spectral band as a good tracer for the ocean circulation. Due to the lack of systematic current measurements in the area considered, it has been not possible to perform an ex-tensive error analysis of the MW-MCC results, although a case study of a comparison between HF radar measurements and MW-MCC data is shown. Moreover, some comparison between numerical ocean model simulations and MW-MCC results are also shown. The coherence of the resulting circulation flow, the high number of current vectors found, the agreement among different spectral bands, and conformity with the currents measured by the HF radars or simulated by hydrodynamic models show the validity of the technique.


Yuhong Zhang, Junyao Chen, Yan Du
146 Views, 109 PDF Downloads
With the remarkable intensity of 170 knots, Typhoon Haiyan starts as a tropical depression on November 3 and develops to the peak as super tropical cyclone (TC) on November 7 in 2013. This intensity makes Haiyan one of the strongest TCs record ever observed and 35 knots higher than the maximum of the existing highest category. Haiyan originated from the eastern part of the Northwest Pacific Warm Pool and moved westward over warm water with a thick barrier layer (BL). The BL reduced the vertical mixing and entrainment caused by Haiyan and prevented the cold thermocline water into the mixed layer (ML). As a result, sea temperature cooling associated with wind stirring was suppressed. Relative high sea surface temperature (SST) kept fueling Haiyan via latent heat flux release, which favored the rapid development of a "Category 6" super typhoon.


Douglas E Pirhalla, Scott C Sheridan, Cameron C Lee, Brian B Barnes, Varis Ransibrahmanakul, Chuanmin Hu
124 Views, 90 PDF Downloads
Temporal variability in water clarity for South Florida’s marine ecosystems was examined through satellite-derived light attenuation (Kd) coefficients, in the context of wind- and weather patterns. Reduced water clarity along Florida’s coasts is often the result of abrupt wind-resuspension events and other exogenous factors linked to frontal passage, storms, and precipitation. Kd data between 1998 and 2013 were synthesized to form a normalized Kd index (KDI) and subsequently compared with Self Organizing Map (SOM)-based wind field categorizations to reveal spatiotemporal patterns and their inter-relationships. Kd climatological maximums occur from October through December along southern sections of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) and from January through March along the Florida Straits. Spatial clusters of elevated Kd occur along 3 spatial domains: central WFS, southern WFS, and Florida Straits near the Florida Reef Tract, where intra-seasonal variability is the highest, and clarity patterns are associated with transitional wind patterns sequenced with cyclonic circulation. Temporal wind transitions from southerly to northerly, typically accompanying frontal passages, most often result in elevated Kd response. Results demonstrate the potential of using synoptic climatological analysis and satellite indices for tracking variability in water clarity and other indicators related to biological health.
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Indexing and Archiving

Archiving and Indexing Road Map

Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology (SOM) aims to be indexed by world-recognized databases, for example, PubMed, Scopus and Science Citation Index (SCI). SOM has been indexed and archived by several databases:


Editorial Board

Click here to see the editorial board.

Focus and Scope

The Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology (SOM) was launched in 2016, in response to the growing use of remotely sensed satellite data in understanding and identifying important processes and phenomena occurring in the atmosphere and ocean. The SOM provides space for oceanographers, meteorologists, hydrologists and climatologists to publish their research papers on theory, science, technology and applications of satellite remote sensing data of the ocean, atmosphere and climate.

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    In-text Citations

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    One author 

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    Journal article (print) with one to three  authors

    Younger P. (2004). Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

    Journal article (print) with more than three authors

    Gamelin F X, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al. (2009). Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

    Journal article (online) with one to three authors

    Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M. (2007). Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1):  1–9.

    Journal article (online) with more than three authors

    Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen T S S, et al. (2015). Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children—A nationwide population-based cohort  study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.

    Book with one to three authors

    Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D. (2007). Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn. Marrickville, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

    Book with more than three authors

    Davis M, Charles L, Curry M J, et al. (2003). Challenging Spatial Norms, London: Routledge.

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Article Processing Charges (APC)

Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology is an Open Access Journal under Whioce Publishing. All articles published in Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology are accessible electronically from the journal website without commencing any kind of payment. In order to ensure contents are freely available and maintain publishing quality, Article Process Charges (APC) is applicable to all authors who wish to submit their articles to the journal to cover the cost incurred in processing the manuscripts. Such cost will cover the peer-review, copyediting, typesetting, publishing, content depositing and archiving processes. Those charges are applicable only to authors who have their manuscript successfully accepted after peer-review.

Journal TitleAPC
Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology$800

We encourage authors to publish their papers with us and don’t wish the cost of article processing fees to be a barrier especially to authors from the low and lower middle income countries/regions. A range of discounts or waivers are offered to authors who are unable to pay our publication processing fees. Authors can write in to apply for a waiver and requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Authors based in these countries/regions listed below may apply to receive up to a 50%-100% waiver of the standard article processing fee; Waiver subjected to approval.

  • Afghanistan
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  • Moldova
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  • Somalia
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  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Tunisia
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Vietnam
  • West Bank and Gaza
  • Yemen, Rep.
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

If you are residing in one of the above mentioned countries and need to apply for a waiver, please email our editorial department ( with the following information:

  • Your name and institution with full address details
  • Title of journal you wish to submit a manuscript to
  • Reason for applying for a waiver
  • Title of your paper
  • Country of residence of all co-author

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • Answer: To establish whether your paper is suitable for this journal, please read Focus and Scope under Editorial Policies.
  • Answer: Registration and login are required to submit manuscript online and to check the status of current submission.
  • Answer: The submission file can be submitted in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Answer: The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 8000 words.
  • Answer: The cover letter is necessary for each submission. The cover letter should be uploaded as a separate file in Step 4 during the submission. The contents of the cover letter should include brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to broad readership. The cover letter will only be visible to the editor. Reviewers will not have access to the cover letter.
  • Answer: You can suggest 2 reviewers for your submission. However, the decision of whether to invite them lies with the Editor.
  • Answer: This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Refer to the Publication Fees tab for more details.



Call for Papers


The Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Jinyu Sheng, invites all authors to submit manuscripts for peer-review.

Posted: 2017-08-23
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