Open Journal Systems

A comparison of L2 and L1 speakers’ production of adverb positions in the Cardiff variety of Welsh

Bethan Lines

Article ID: 1451
Vol 4, Issue 1, 2022, Article identifier:1-17

VIEWS - 10 (Abstract) 6 (PDF)

Abstract

The grammaticality of adverb positions varies by language. Consequently, L2 and L1 speakers may differ from each other in their acquisition of adverb positions. Given that L2 Welsh speakers outnumber L1 Welsh speakers in Wales, differences in acquisition may change which adverb positions occur in contemporary Welsh. This study compares which adverb positions L2 and L1 speakers produce in the spoken data from Cardiff in the CorCenCC corpus (Knight et al., 2020) in order to identify any differences in acquisition. Comparisons of L2 and L1 English speakers find that L2 speakers consistently acquire novel adverb positions yet they frequently use ungrammatical adverb positions. They also do not acquire additional constraints on adverb positions. This study largely reinforces these findings. First, L2 Welsh speakers produce every adverb position that L1 speakers produce. Secondly, although the definiteness constraint that Borsley et al. (2009: 50) describe is not productive in the sample of Cardiff Welsh speakers, L1 speakers exhibit a heaviness constraint on V-Adv-O that L2 speakers do not. Therefore, L1 transfer neither inhibits the acquisition of adverb positions nor facilitates the acquisition of additional constraints. However, unlike L2 English speakers, L2 Welsh speakers do not produce ungrammatical adverb positions. This likely derives from the lack of transferable adverb positions between Welsh and English rather than a lack of transfer. Therefore, this sample of Cardiff Welsh reinforces the crosslinguistic consistency of L2 speakers’ acquisition of adverb positions. It also suggests that L2 Welsh speakers most likely diverge from L1 speakers in the contexts in which they use adverb positions rather than the adverb positions that they use. 


Keywords

second language acquisition; adverbs; syntax; Welsh; corpus study

Full Text:

PDF


Included Database


References

Binks HL and Thomas EM (2019) Long-term outcomes for bilinguals in minority language contexts: Welsh-English teenagers’ performance on measures of grammatical gender and plural morphology in Welsh. Applied Psycholinguistics (40): 1019–1049.

Borsley RD and Jones BM (2005) Welsh Negation and Grammatical Theory. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Borsley RD, Tallerman M, and Willis D (2009) The Syntax of Welsh. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cinque G (1999) Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Crosslinguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cook V (2016) Premises of multi-competence. In: Cook V and Wei L (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-Competence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.1–25.

Deuchar M (2005) Congruence and Welsh-English code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 8(3): 255–269.

King G (2003) Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar (2nd edn.). London, New York: Routledge.

Knight D, Morris S, Fitzpatrick T, et al. (2020) CorCenCC: Corpws Cenedlaethol Cymraeg Cyfoes – The National Corpus of Contemporary Welsh (Version 1.0.0). Cardiff University. DOI: 10.17035/d.2020.0119878310

Lardiere D (2018) Establishing ultimate attainment in a particular second language grammar. In: Han Z and Odlin T (eds.) Studies of Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition. Bristol, Blueridge Summit: Multilingual Matters, pp.35–55.

Larsson T, Callies M, Hasselgård H, et al. (2020) Adverb placement in EFL academic writing: Going beyond syntactic transfer. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 25(2): 155–184.

Osborne J (2008) Adverb placement in post-intermediate learner English: A contrastive study of learner corpora. In: Gilquin G, Papp S, and Díez-Bedmar MB (eds.) Linking up Contrastive and Learner Corpus Research. Amsterdam: Brill, pp.127–146.

Robert E (2009) Accommodating “new” speakers? An attitudinal investigation of L2 speakers of Welsh in south-east Wales. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195(195): 93–115.

Roberts IG (2005) Principles and Parameters in a VSO Language: A Case Study in Welsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schifano N (2018) Verb Movement in Romance: A Comparative Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Welsh Government (2020) Where and when people learn to speak Welsh. National Survey for Wales, 2018-19 [online]. Statistics for Wales. Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2020-04/where-and-when-people-learn-speak-welsh-national-survey-wales-april-2018-march-2019-182.pdf

White L (1991) Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom. Second Language Research 7(2): 133–161.

Williams CH (2014) The lightening veil: Language revitalization in Wales. Review of Research in Education 38(1): 252–272.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/fls.v4i1.1451
(10 Abstract Views, 6 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Bethan Lines