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Author Guidelines

NOTE: Authors are encouraged to select the journal they want to submit manuscripts to before writing and formatting. Choose an article type, e.g. Original Research Article or Reviews, that matches the written works. Read the General Criteria to get a general idea of the format and style of journal’s articles. Then, proceed to the guidelines of article type of interest for more specific guidance on the structure and section requirements.


General Criteria


The manuscript must be written consistently either in American English or British English. Authors are encouraged to use clear language and simple sentence structure. Acronyms or abbreviations should be explained in full when first used in the text, table or figure. The authors who are not native speakers of English are advised to hire professional proofreading service and make necessary amendments before submission.

Format of manuscript

  • The manuscript is written and can be opened using Microsoft Word.
  • Page size: A4
  • Margin size: 2.5 cm on all edges
  • Line spacing: 1.5
  • Portrait orientation for the whole manuscript. Landscape orientation is allowed for figures and tables, if necessary.
  • 12-point Times New Roman for the entire manuscript, however, changes in font type and size are allowed for figures, provided that the font type and size are readable.
  • Section headings should be left aligned and capitalized (e.g. ABSTRACT, RESULTS). Sub-section headings should be italicized and in lower-case with their initial letters capitalized (e.g. Subject recruitmentGel electrophoresis).
  • Page numbers (choose Bottom of Page, Right) and line numbers (choose Restart Each Page) must be included.
  • If necessary, employ italics rather than underlining (except for URL addresses). Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species) for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. in vivoin vitroper seet al. etc.
  • The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the abstract and text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.

Standard structure of article

Authors are advised to use the standard structure as shown in the following:


Author cover page

The author cover page must be the first page of the manuscript which contains the following:

  • Article title
  • Authors – first name, middle name’s initial, last name, e.g. Adam J. Smith
  • Affiliations and addresses – the authors are indicated for the affiliations with superscripted numbers, and multiple affiliations are allowed
  • Corresponding author - first name, middle name’s initial, last name, and active email address



The structure of content varies among article types. Refer to the suitable article type below for more elaborate section structure.

Do not embed or place any figures and tables in sections like Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. Authors should place the figures and tables at the end of the manuscript, e.g. after the Reference section. The figures and tables will be embedded or placed accordingly in the text during the typesetting stage.


Cover letter

The cover letter accompanying your article submission should be in the format of an official letter, highlighting to Editor-in-Chief the most important findings. Above all, the authors should make use of the cover letter to argue that the manuscript is a good fit for the journal. 

Authors should indicate/include

  • The title of manuscript
  • The type of article
  • The specialty to which the manuscript is being submitted
  • Whether the work described in the manuscript is part of a research topic
  • A short description of the objective(s), significance, as well as impact and novelty of the written works in relevant field
  • A declaration statement that the manuscript has not been submitted for publication elsewhere (A copy of manuscript should be provided if there are any closely related works submitted for consideration in other publications)


List of suggested reviewers

Authors need to provide the names of two to five potential reviewers from the academic background. The suggested reviewers must possess the expertise in the field of work as described in the manuscript. Reasons must be provided if the suggested reviewers are not from the academic background. In the list, authors need to supply the names and titles, current affiliation, email address and telephone number of the suggested reviewers.

See an example of our manuscript template for original research article. It will give you a general idea of the format, style and text organization of an article and relevant sections, in the appropriate order, that should be included in the manuscript.


General requirements of sections

The following sections do not apply to all types of articles. Authors should refer to a particular article type for the sections required for their manuscripts. 



  • Fully represents the essence and gist of submitted manuscript
  • Less than 120 characters
  • Avoid non-standard abbreviations
  • The first letter of each word should be in capital letters except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.



An abstract is only required if the authors submit their manuscripts as Original Research Articles, Review Articles or Mini-Reviews.



3 to 6 keywords are required



An introduction should include the background, research problems/gaps and aims of the research in a comprehensive manner.


Materials and Methods

Authors should provide details to ensure the reproducibility of research findings. Details such as catalogue number, model number and supplier/manufacturer pertaining to the reagents, kits, cell strain, equipment, etc. used in the study should be supplied when appropriate.

Published methods must be indicated by a reference. If modifications have been introduced  to the published methods, only the changes in the procedures, materials and equipment should be described.



The presentation and elaboration on the results should be precise and concise.



This section explores the significance of the results and discusses the impact of the manuscript in light of recent developments in the field by providing supporting findings and data from other published articles. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.



(or Concluding Remark in Case Reports or Short Communications)

This section may include a small paragraph summarizing the significant works of the manuscript, presenting the final outcome of the research or suggesting further study or improvement on the topic.



A short text is required to acknowledge the contributions given by colleagues, institutions, organizations or agencies in supporting the works in the manuscript. Any funding source with the grant number must be stated clearly and acknowledged.


Conflict of Interest

Any personal, professional and/or financial contributions or any potential conflict of interest should be included at the end of the submitted manuscript before the references section. For more information on conflict of interest, please refer to Editorial Policies.


List of Abbreviations

This section serves to list out all the abbreviations used in the manuscript. The items in the list must be arranged in the alphabetical order, regardless of their order in the text, e.g.:

atm, standard atmosphere; Nrf2, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; PCR, polymerase chain reaction



See the Reference section below.

Ethical consideration

For human or animal experimental investigations, it is a prerequisite to provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or local ethics committee, which should be documented in paper.

All clinical investigations involving human subjects must be conducted according to ethical principles in the Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2000 and 2008. Authors must comply with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( in conjunction with the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study. Patient names, initials, or hospital numbers must not be mentioned anywhere in the manuscript (including figures and tables). The authors should inform and discuss with the study participants on the purpose(s) of publication, the possible risks and benefits and the individual’s right to withhold or withdraw consent before recruitment. In the case of a minor patient, consent should be obtained from the parent(s) or guardian(s). The authors should not perform any misconduct or deceive the human subjects in obtaining their consent. In the case where a confidential case material is used in the study, the authors must obtain verbal and written consent of human subjects before they participate in the study. However, a patient consent is not required for very brief case vignettes which do not contain identifying information or if the case material is masked sufficiently to prevent identification of the patient. A statement that experiments were performed with the understanding and consent of each human subject, with the approval of the appropriate local ethics committee, and the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., verbal and written) should be stated clearly in the Materials and Methods section.

For investigations involving the use of animals, the authors should indicate whether international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed accordingly. The authors must include details of animal welfare (such as species, number, gender, age, weight, housing conditions, welfare, training and the fate of the animals at the end of the experiment) and relevant details of steps taken to ameliorate animal suffering in the Materials and Methods section of a manuscript. Similarly, for any experiments involving animals from clients or private institutions, the authors are required to get informed client consent and should adhere to the high-standard veterinary care (best practice). These details should be included in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.

Editors may request the authors to provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or local ethics committee which is responsible for overseeing the study, if necessary.


Figures and tables

Figures and tables should not be embeded in the text of the manuscript, instead, they should be placed at the end of the manuscript. For example, any figures and tables that should appear in the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion sections of the manuscript must be placed at the end of the manuscript, e.g. after the Reference section for the manuscript of original research article.



  • 'Figure' refers to photographs, line drawings, diagrams, flow charts, graphs and charts.
  • Figures should be saved in one of the following formats: .jpg, .tif, .bmp, .png and .eps. Authors are advised to submit high-quality images or photographs (300 ppi) in the .jpg or .tif format during the first submission.
  • Scale bar should be provided for photograph items.
  • The figures should be placed in the same document (at the end of) of manuscript.
  • Each figure must be accompanied by a brief title, but a legend is optional. Both figure title and legend must appear below the figure.
  • All figures must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively throughout, in order of their citation in the body of the text. The first figure should be Figure 1, followed by Figure 2, and so on. The words of Figure 1Figure 2 and so on should be put in bold throughout the manuscript. No abbreviation such as ‘Fig. 1’ is allowed.
  • All figures must be cited in the main text.
  • Multi-part figures are allowed. Each part of the figure should be labelled with a bold, uppercase letter, which usually starts with ‘A’. Whenever a part of the figure is cited in text, the alphabet label should be put within parentheses, e.g. Figure 1(A).
  • Any color figure should be prepared in the CMYK format. RGB colors are not accepted. Please note that if the authors do not wish to publish the illustrations in colors, uncolored illustrations must be provided.
  • It is advisable to shrink the size of figures with considerably large file size, especially for .tif and .eps figures, by converting them to .jpg format while maintaining acceptable, maximum image quality.
  • Authors need to provide original figures by uploading them in the “Supplementary Files” section, upon request.
  • The Journal reserves the right to reject the inclusion of particular illustrations in the manuscript if the graphics are unreasonably large for the content.



  • Tables should be generated as editable text but not as images.
  • The tables should be placed in the same document (at the end of) of manuscript.
  • Each table must be accompanied by a brief title, but the description and footnote are optional. The table title must appear above the table, while the description and/or footnote, if there is any, must appear below the table.
  • A table generally consists of at least two vertical columns and two horizontal rows. Any divisions of the table should be indicated by horizontal rules.
  • All tables must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively throughout, in order of their citation in the body of the text. The first table should be Table 1, followed by Table 2, and so on. The words of Table 1Table 2 and so on should be put in bold throughout the manuscript. No abbreviation such as ‘Tab. 1’ is allowed.
  • All tables must be cited in the main text.
  • Any units that should appear in the column and row headings of a table must be included in parentheses.
  • The data presented in tables should not be a duplication of results described elsewhere in the article, such as those in the text or figures.
  • Avoid shading in table cells.


Supplementary Files (if any)

Supplementary files are used to enhance the quality and integrity of the scholarly manuscript and are not part of the manuscript. In general, supplementary files include:

  • Figures (high-quality .jpg, .tif, .bmp and .eps, embedded in MS Word)
  • Tables (MS Word)
  • Raw data (MS Excel spreadsheet)
  • Consent forms (MS Word)
  • Ethics approval letter from an institutional review board or independent ethics committee
  • Author Declaration Letter
  • ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form
  • Videos (.mp4)
  • Any other types of files as requested by reviewers and/or editors

All supplemental files must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively, regardless of file types. Each file is named as “Supplementary File” followed by a number. The first supplementary file that is cited in the manuscript is should be Supplemental File 1, followed by Supplemental File 2, and so on. The words of Supplemental File 1, Supplemental File 2 and so on should be put in bold.

In general, it is not compulsory to cite supplementary files in the text but supplementary figures and tables are generally cited to attract the attention of readers to additional data and analysis. Each supplementary figure/table must be accompanied by a brief title, and the legend or footnote is optional.

ALL supplementary files must be named appropriately and uploaded to Supplementary Files section during the submission stage.



Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format is TIFF or EPS in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi, with the color mode is either Monochrome 1-bit or RGB.

Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. The images should in a TIFF format in a resolution of 300 dpi, with the color mode being RGB or Grayscale.

Combination image type is an image containing halftone, text or line art elements. This type of image should be in the TIFF format in a resolution of 500-900 dpi, with the color mode being RGB or Grayscale.

Greek Symbols and Special Characters

To ensure that all Greek symbols and special characters are embedded in the text without being lost during conversion to PDF/XML, these symbols and characters must be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (symbol font face).

Authors are urged to refer to existing guidelines. These guidelines give an arrangement of suggestions involving a rundown of things pertinent to their particular research plan. Chemical equations, chemical names, mathematical usage, unit of measurements, chemical and physical quantity & units must conform to SI and Chemical Abstracts or IUPAC.

All kinds of measurements should be used only as stated in International System of Units (SI).


Authors should only use Vancouver style to list the references. The list of references should include only those publications that are cited in the text. All references should be numbered sequentially, [in square parentheses] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. We strongly encourage the authors to use professional reference listing software, for examples, Endnote, Mendleye or Reference Manager before submission.

See below for a few examples of references listed in the Vancouver Style:


Journal article (print) with one to three authors:

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

Journal article (print) with more than three authors:

Gamelin F X, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

Journal article (online) with one to three authors:

Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9.

Journal article (online) with more than three authors:

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen T S S, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.


Book with one to three authors:

Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.

Book with more than three authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry M J, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.

Chapter or article in book

Knowles M S, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.


Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers:

Chang S S, Liaw L and Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.

Conference proceedings (from electronic database):

Wang T, Cook C and Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009(SENSORCOM-
, 82–85.

Online document with author names:

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf

Online document without author name:

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


Standards Australia Online, 2006Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.

Government report:

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Government report (online):

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,

No author:

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.

Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


Original Research Article

Original research articles should provide details regarding essential and unpublished investigations and ought to describe the aims and hypothesis, methods, results, analysis of the of results and conclusion. The journal allows the original research articles to explore confirming studies and disconfirming results, which allow hypothesis elimination, reformulation or potentially provide details regarding the non-reproducibility of previously published results. Articles should include the following sections:

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Conflict of Interest
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Reference
  • Figures and/or tables

Original research articles are peer-reviewed with the following requirements:

  1. Maximum word count of 12,000 words, excluding Cover Letter and the List of Suggested Reviewer in the same document
  2. A structured, unreferenced abstract with the length between 200 to 250 words, with the subheadings of Background, Objective(s), Results and Conclusion.
  3. 4 to 6 keywords
  4. Up to 15 figures/tables
  5. Not more than 30 references
  6. Authors need to pay a publication fee to publish an Original Research Article.


Review Article

Review articles cover topics that have critical advancement or improvement as of late with complete profundity and give an adjusted point of view. Review articles should exhibit an entire diagram of the cutting edge of stem cells and tissue engineering topics, and not just simply summarize the available literature on the topics. Additionally, review articles should discuss the following:

  • General background of the field
  • Previous important reviews in the field
  • Different school of considerations or discussions
  • Basic ideas, issues, and problems
  • Prominent features of recent developments
  • Current research gaps
  • Suggestion to improve the research gaps or future perspectives in the field

Review articles may include any unpublished material, i.e. unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications. However, a clear explanation/elaboration on the unpublished material should be provided.

Review articles should include the following sections:

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Sections (with heading and subheadings)
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Conflict of Interest
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Reference
  • Figures and/or tables

Review articles are peer-reviewed with the following requirements:

  1. Maximum word count of 12,000 words, excluding Cover Letter and the List of Suggested Reviewer in the same document
  2. An unstructured, unreferenced abstract with the length between 150 to 200 words
  3. 4 to 6 keywords
  4. Up to 15 figures/tables
  5. Not more than 40 references
  6. Authors need to pay a publication fee to publish a Review Article.




Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has never been published, nor is it considered by another journal at the time Genetic Disease Study is processing and/or reviewing the manuscript. The authors need to notify the journal if the data in the manuscript has been presented at conferences, seminars or other forums. Please use the Comments to Editor section on this page to notify the journal’s Editor in this regard.
  2. The works as described in the manuscript are in line with the Focus and Scope of the journal. The manuscript was written according to the criteria, format and style such as the stylistic and bibliographic requirements set by Genetic Disease Study (see Author Guidelines). All sections of the manuscript are correctly organized.
  3. Authors have already proofread the manuscript to ensure that either American English or British English has been used consistently throughout the manuscript, the sentences are grammatically correct and no typographical errors are made.
  4. Cover letter and a list of suggested reviewers (two to five reviewers) have already been included in the manuscript as a document.
  5. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors contributing to Whioce Publishing Pte. Ltd. agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear.


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Article Processing Charges (APC)

Article Publication: 0.00 (USD)
Refer to the Publication Fee tab on the home page for more details.