Vol 4, No 2 (2018)

Table of Contents

Research Articles

by Yanyu Xin, Tianji Cai
1260 Views, 817 PDF Downloads

Child trafficking has long been internationally recognized as a serious crime. However, due to data scarcity and inconsistent definitions, the scope and nature of such criminal activity are not well understood in China. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide new evidence by digitizing and analyzing sentencing documents on child trafficking in China during 2014-2016. Taking advantage of web scraping techniques, all child trafficking cases were downloaded from the China Judgments Online website. Through geographic mapping and network analysis, we identified four geographic hotspots for trafficking—the central region (Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces), the east (Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces), the southeast (Guangdong and Fujian provinces) and the southwest (Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces)—and explored the connection between the hotspots and the gender of victims. We further examined the effect of provincial socioeconomic characteristics on the frequency of trafficking cases, and found that sex ratio at birth and the number of legal adoptions per thousand were positively correlated to the frequency of buying and selling children.

Research Articles

by Witness Chirinda, Yasuhiko Saito, Danan Gu, Nompumelelo Zungu
518 Views, 334 PDF Downloads

Data characterizing older people’s life expectancy by good or poor health is
important for policy and fiscal planning. This study aims to examine trends and investigate
gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) for older people in South Africa for the
period 2005–2012. Using data from three repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2005,
2008, and 2012, we applied a self-rated health measure to estimating HLE. The Sullivan
method was used in the calculations. We found that unhealthy life expectancy decreased over
the period, while HLE and the proportion of life spent in good health increased more than
total life expectancy in the same period. Gender disparities were evident: Women had higher
life expectancy than men, yet they spent a greater proportion of their lifetime in poor health.
We concluded that HLE of older people in South Africa has improved over the period under

Research Articles

by . Sreerupa, S. Irudaya Rajan, Shweta Ajay, Yasuhiko Saito, Rahul Malhotra
4145 Views, 325 PDF Downloads

This study estimates changes in life expectancy with and without mobility limitation to test whether older persons in India experienced compression or expansion of morbidity from the period 1995–1996 to 2004. Age-specific death rates and the prevalence of mobility limitation were obtained from the Sample Registration System and two rounds (1995–1996/2004) of the National Sample Survey. Sullivan’s method was employed to compute life expectancy with and without mobility limitation by gender and by place of residence. From 1995–1996 to 2004, at ages 60, 70, and 80, older men and older rural persons in India experienced a significant increase in life expectancy without mobility limitation and a significant reduction in the proportion of remaining life with mobility limitation, suggesting a compression of morbidity. However, over this same period, older women and older urban persons seem to have experienced an expansion of morbidity with an increase in life expectancy with mobility limitation and an increase in the proportion of remaining life with mobility limitation. These results call for the promotion and maintenance of physical mobility among all older persons in India, with special attention to older women and older urban persons.

Research Articles

by Anita Patil, Priti Patil, Prashant Bhandarkar
474 Views, 425 PDF Downloads

Adolescent obesity can be defined using various age- and sex-specific growth
charts. In addition to general obesity, central adiposity is also crucially important. This paper
aims to study the efficacy of central adiposity with general obesity using different growth
charts recommendations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in
Mumbai. Anthropometric data were obtained from 1349 adolescents aged 9–15 years. Growth
charts of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), and
World Health Organization (WHO) were used to classify overweight and obese status among
each of the participants. Central obesity indices such as the waist circumference (WC), the
waist to height ratio (WHtR), and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The efficacy of
each of central obesity indices was checked with overweight and obesity status. The receivers
operating characteristics curves were drawn to check the efficacy of central obesity indices.
According to IAP, IOTF, and WHO chart, the prevalence rates of overweight and obese among
the sampled adolescents were 35.9%, 27.0%, and 25.0%, respectively, while, 26.5%, 26.3%,
and 31% were found to be centrally obese as per WC, WHtR, and WHR, respectively. The
values of area under curve for WC and WHtR were found between 0.857 and 0.942 for all three
methods, while the corresponding values were between 0.611 and 0.689, indicating that WHR
is a less robust indicator. We conclude that the central obesity status appears to be an efficient
measure to identify the general obesity status irrespective of growth chart recommendations.
WHtR and WC are found to be more robust indicators of general obesity.