Open Journal Systems

Benefits and challenges of urbanization and low carbon energy needs in India

T. G. Sitharam, Jaya Dhindaw

Article ID: 71
Vol 1, Issue 1, 2016, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 264 (Abstract) 329 (PDF)


Urbanization has occurred rapidly in India principally due to social, economic and political drivers and has offered improved quality of life, access to amenities and economic opportunities for many. However, this has been accompanied by challenges that include insufficient energy, lack of urban infrastructure, and poor delivery of basic ser-vices, resulting in undesirable environmental impacts, congestion, and urban sprawl. India’s urbanization has placed tremendous demand on the country’s resources. Providing energy to all while maintaining a low carbon footprint is a global priority. Although economic development is anchored by both urbanization and industrialization, urbanization itself is a major determinant of energy use, including energy use related to transportation. Deficiencies in urban planning and management have to be overcome if India’s urban environment is to meet the rising expectations of an expanding urban population and provide an environment consistent with rapid, inclusive and sustainable growth. India's energy demand in 2030 is likely to be double that of current demand. Achieving a greener future in a sustainable way with low energy costs can be addressed by measures such as preferential policies towards renewables, investment in technology and empowerment of local government to meet the low carbon energy needs in India.



urbanization, low carbon energy, transportation; technology; renewable energy; sustainable

Full Text:


Included Database


Business Standard, 2012, Victims of urbanisation: India, Indonesia and China, viewed March 2, 2016,

Datta P, 2006, Urbanization in India: regional and sub-regional population dynamic population process in urban areas. European Population Conference, 21–24 June, 2006, 1–16, viewed March 2, 2016,

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2007, State of the world population 2007: unleashing the potential of urban growth, viewed March 2, 2016,

Sankhe S, Vittal I, Dobbs R, et al. 2010, India’s urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth, McKinsey Global Institute, viewed March 16, 2016,

Alhuwalia I J, 2014, Tackling the challenges of urbanization in India, viewed March 2, 2016,

World energy consumption clock, 2014, viewed March 2, 2016,

BP Statistical Review of world energy workbook, 2014, viewed June 15, 2014,

Yep E, 2011, India’s widening energy deficit, in The Wall Street Journal India, viewed March 2, 2016,

PBL Netherlands Environmental Assesment Agency, 2013, in Trends in global CO2 emissions: 2013 report, viewed December 1, 2014,

UK Energy White Paper: our energy future — creating a low-carbon economy, 2013, viewed March 16, 2016,

Salvi B, Subramanian K and Panwar N, 2013, Alternative fuels for transportation vehicles: a technical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.25: 404–419.

Government of India Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, 2014–2015, in Achievements MNRE.

Kumar U, Singh P and Tiwari A, 2014, A critical study and analysis of various aspects of micro hydro power generation with screw archimedean turbine in India. VSRD International Journal of Mechanical, Civil, Automobile and Production Engineering, vol.4(10),

World Coal Institute (WCI), 2009, The coal resource: a comprehensive overview of coal, viewed March 2, 2016,

Business Standard Budget Analysis, 2009, Slowdown not to affect India’s nuclear plans, viewed March 2, 2016,

International Energy Agency (IEA), 2013, viewed March 2, 2016,

(264 Abstract Views, 329 PDF Downloads)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 T. G. Sitharam, Jaya Dhindaw

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.