Vol 1, No 3 (Published)


Table of Contents


by Frederick Ray Gomez
377 Views, 187 PDF Downloads

Differential implementation is becoming highly favoured in RFIC (radio frequency integrated circuit) design, notably its high immunity to common-mode noises, acceptable rejection of parasitic coupling, and increased dynamic range. One specific RF front-end building block that is usually designed as a differential circuit is the mixer.  This technical paper presents a study of a differential mixer, notably the double-balanced mixer implemented on a direct-conversion architecture in a standard 90nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) process.  Operating frequency is set at 5GHz, which is a typical frequency for RF (radio frequency) receiver.   Impedance matching was essential to fully optimize the mixer design.  The direct-conversion double-balance mixer design eventually achieved conversion gain of 11.463dB and noise figure of 16.529dB, comparable to mixer designs from past research and studies.


by Ming Yang, Hongting Qi
258 Views, 151 PDF Downloads

Professional accomplishment is a set of professional internal norms and requirements which can reflect and reflect the comprehensive quality of modern professional in the process of professional behavior. With the help of the teaching of electronics and electrician specialty in secondary vocational school, the author accumulates the strong motive force of vocational students'career development, effectively promotes their core competitiveness in employment, and eventually exports high-skilled and high-quality products to enterprises through the cultivation of vocational quality in classroom teaching, training in skills competition and assimilation in school-enterprise cooperation. The compound talents.


by Dr Suraya mubeen
252 Views, 113 PDF Downloads
Multiple antennas can be arranged in various geometrical configurations to form antenna array with high directive radiation pattern. Linear antennas are limited in their steering capability. The circular arrays ar   more popular in recent years over other array geometries because they have the capability to perform the scan in all the directions and considerable change in the beam pattern which provide 3600 total coverage. Circular arrays are less sensitive to mutual coupling as compared to linear and rectangular arrays since they do not have edge elements. They can be used for beam forming in the azimuth plane for example at the base stations of the mobile radio communication systems as the components for signal processing. FFA design method of circular apertures for narrow beam width and low side lobes has been reported by Taylor. It includes the development of continuous circular aperture distributions, which contain only two independent parameters, A & , where A is related to the design of side lobe level and  is a number controlling the degree of uniformity of the side lobes.